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AIMS Streptomycetes are regarded to prefer neutral to alkaline environmental pH, although they commonly occur at remarkably variable pH and nutritional conditions. Therefore, the dependence of 10 Streptomyces spp. pH tolerance on nutrients was determined. METHODS AND RESULTS Ten environmental Streptomyces spp. were grown and sporulated between pH 4.0 and(More)
The metabolite profiles of 20 Stachybotrys spp. isolates from Finnish water-damaged buildings were compared with their biological activities. Effects of purified compounds on cytotoxicity and production of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide, IL-6 and TNFalpha in murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells were studied. The 11 isolates belonging to the(More)
We investigated the cytotoxic and inflammatory activities of size-segregated particulate samples (particulate matter, PM) from contrasting air pollution situations in Europe. Coarse (PM10-2.5), fine (PM2.5-0.2), and ultrafine (PM0.2) particulate samples were collected with a modified Harvard high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). Mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages(More)
The authors have previously demonstrated heterogeneities in the inflammatory activities of urban air fine (PM(2.5-0.2)) and coarse (PM(10-2.5)) particulate samples collected from six European cities with contrasting air pollution situations. The same samples (10 mg/kg) were intratracheally instilled to healthy C57BL/6J mice either once or repeatedly on days(More)
Current levels of ambient air fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) are associated with mortality and morbidity in urban populations worldwide. In residential areas wood combustion is one of the main sources of PM(2.5) emissions, especially during wintertime. However, the adverse health effects of particulate emissions from the modern heating appliances and(More)
Microbial growth in buildings is associated with respiratory symptoms in the occupants. However, the specific effects of the microbes and the way they provoke clinical manifestations are poorly understood. In the current study, mice were exposed via intratracheal instillation to single doses of the spores of Streptomyces californicus, isolated from indoor(More)
We compared the inflammatory and cytotoxic responses caused by household mold and bacteria in human and mouse cell lines. We studied the fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium spinulosum, and Stachybotrys chartarum and the bacteria Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Streptomyces californicus for their cytotoxicity and ability to stimulate the(More)
The microbial exposure associated with health complaints in moldy houses consists of a heterogeneous group of components, including both living and dead bacteria, fungi, and their metabolites and active compounds. However, little is known about the interactions between different microbes and their metabolites, although the cytotoxicity and inflammatory(More)
The impact of long-range transport (LRT) episodes of wildfire smoke on the inflammogenic and cytotoxic activity of urban air particles was investigated in the mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages. The particles were sampled in four size ranges using a modified Harvard high-volume cascade impactor, and the samples were chemically characterized for identification of(More)
Epidemiological studies show heterogeneities in the particulate pollution-related exposure-effect relationships among cardiorespiratory patients, but the connection to chemical composition and toxic properties of the inhaled particles is largely unknown. To identify the chemical constituents and sources responsible for the diverse inflammatory and cytotoxic(More)