Maija-Riitta Hirvonen

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We investigated the cytotoxic and inflammatory activities of size-segregated particulate samples (particulate matter, PM) from contrasting air pollution situations in Europe. Coarse (PM10-2.5), fine (PM2.5-0.2), and ultrafine (PM0.2) particulate samples were collected with a modified Harvard high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). Mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages(More)
There is increasing demand for renewable energy and the use of biodiesel in traffic is a major option when implying this increment. We investigated the toxicological activities of particulate emissions from a nonroad diesel engine, operated with conventional diesel fuel (EN590), and two biodiesels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and hydrotreated fresh(More)
We compared the inflammatory and cytotoxic responses caused by household mold and bacteria in human and mouse cell lines. We studied the fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium spinulosum, and Stachybotrys chartarum and the bacteria Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Streptomyces californicus for their cytotoxicity and ability to stimulate the(More)
The microbial exposure associated with health complaints in moldy houses consists of a heterogeneous group of components, including both living and dead bacteria, fungi, and their metabolites and active compounds. However, little is known about the interactions between different microbes and their metabolites, although the cytotoxicity and inflammatory(More)
The impact of long-range transport (LRT) episodes of wildfire smoke on the inflammogenic and cytotoxic activity of urban air particles was investigated in the mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages. The particles were sampled in four size ranges using a modified Harvard high-volume cascade impactor, and the samples were chemically characterized for identification of(More)
We investigated the dose and time dependency of inflammatory and cytotoxic responses to size-segregated urban air particulate samples in the mouse lung. Coarse (PM10-2.5), fine (PM2.5-0.2), and ultrafine (PM0.2) particles were collected in six European cities (Duisburg, Prague, Amsterdam, Helsinki, Barcelona, Athens) in selected seasons using a modified(More)
BACKGROUND The adverse respiratory health effects of dampness and mould in the home have been extensively reported, but few studies have evaluated the health effects of such exposures in schools. OBJECTIVES To assess the associations between dampness and mould in school buildings and respiratory symptoms among 6-12-year-old pupils in three European(More)
AIMS Streptomycetes are regarded to prefer neutral to alkaline environmental pH, although they commonly occur at remarkably variable pH and nutritional conditions. Therefore, the dependence of 10 Streptomyces spp. pH tolerance on nutrients was determined. METHODS AND RESULTS Ten environmental Streptomyces spp. were grown and sporulated between pH 4.0 and(More)
Several epidemiological studies have described an association between adverse health effects and exposure to mould and microbes present in the indoor air of moisture-damaged buildings. However, the biochemical linkage between microbial exposure and the large variety of reported respiratory symptoms is poorly understood. In the present study, the authors(More)
Epidemiological data indicate that living or working in a moldy building is associated with increased risk of respiratory symptoms and disease related to inflammatory reactions, but biochemical evidence linking cause and effect is still scarce. The staff working in a mold-contaminated school, and a reference group without such exposure, were studied. Nasal(More)