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Vascular endothelial growth factors and their endothelial tyrosine kinase receptors are central regulators of vasculogenesis, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. VEGF signalling through VEGFR-2 is the major angiogenic pathway, and blockage of VEGF/VEGFR-2 signalling is the first anti-angiogenic strategy for cancer therapy. VEGFR-1 seems to act as a negative(More)
The skin interstitium sequesters excess Na+ and Cl- in salt-sensitive hypertension. Mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) cells are recruited to the skin, sense the hypertonic electrolyte accumulation in skin, and activate the tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TONEBP, also known as NFAT5) to initiate expression and secretion of VEGFC, which(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The endothelial cells of the blood and lymphatic vessels are involved in common human diseases. Excess blood and lymphatic vessel growth enhances tumor progression and metastasis, whereas insufficient growth leads to tissue ischemia and lymphedema. Lymphatic and blood vascular endothelial cells are regulated by two endothelial specific(More)
Angiogenic growth factors have recently been linked to tissue metabolism. We have used genetic gain- and loss-of function models to elucidate the effects and mechanisms of action of vascular endothelial growth factor-B (VEGF-B) in the heart. A cardiomyocyte-specific VEGF-B transgene induced an expanded coronary arterial tree and reprogramming of(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-B is poorly angiogenic but prominently expressed in metabolically highly active tissues, including the heart. We produced mice expressing a cardiac-specific VEGF-B transgene via the alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter. Surprisingly, the hearts of the VEGF-B transgenic mice showed concentric cardiac hypertrophy without(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor-B (VEGF-B), discovered over 15 years ago, has long been seen as one of the more ambiguous members of the VEGF family. VEGF-B is produced as two isoforms: one that binds strongly to heparan sulfate in the pericellular matrix and a soluble form that can acquire binding via proteolytic processing. Both forms of VEGF-B bind to(More)
These studies used bi-transgenic Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP)/IL-1β mice that conditionally overexpress IL-1β in Clara cells to determine whether IL-1β can promote angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in airways. Doxycycline treatment induced rapid, abundant, and reversible IL-1β production, influx of neutrophils and macrophages, and conspicuous and(More)
VEGF-C and VEGF-D were identified as lymphangiogenic growth factors and later shown to promote tumor metastasis, but their effects on carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we have studied the effects of VEGF-C and VEGF-D on tumor development in the murine multistep chemical carcinogenesis model of squamous cell carcinoma by using a soluble(More)
The formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is required for the growth of most tumors. The tumor microenvironment also induces lymphangiogenic factors that promote metastatic spread. Anti-angiogenic therapy targets the mechanisms behind the growth of the tumor vasculature. During the past two decades, several strategies targeting blood and lymphatic(More)
Tumor-associated neovascularization allows tumor cells to express their critical growth advantage, whereas lymphatic invasion is crucial for the metastatic process. Various growth factors stimulate blood and lymphatic neovascularization and modulate vessel permeability in tumors. The first anti-angiogenic drugs are already in routine use, and new(More)