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Vascular endothelial growth factors and their endothelial tyrosine kinase receptors are central regulators of vasculogenesis, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. VEGF signalling through VEGFR-2 is the major angiogenic pathway, and blockage of VEGF/VEGFR-2 signalling is the first anti-angiogenic strategy for cancer therapy. VEGFR-1 seems to act as a negative(More)
The skin interstitium sequesters excess Na+ and Cl- in salt-sensitive hypertension. Mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) cells are recruited to the skin, sense the hypertonic electrolyte accumulation in skin, and activate the tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TONEBP, also known as NFAT5) to initiate expression and secretion of VEGFC, which(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor-B (VEGF-B), discovered over 15 years ago, has long been seen as one of the more ambiguous members of the VEGF family. VEGF-B is produced as two isoforms: one that binds strongly to heparan sulfate in the pericellular matrix and a soluble form that can acquire binding via proteolytic processing. Both forms of VEGF-B bind to(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-B is poorly angiogenic but prominently expressed in metabolically highly active tissues, including the heart. We produced mice expressing a cardiac-specific VEGF-B transgene via the alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter. Surprisingly, the hearts of the VEGF-B transgenic mice showed concentric cardiac hypertrophy without(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The endothelial cells of the blood and lymphatic vessels are involved in common human diseases. Excess blood and lymphatic vessel growth enhances tumor progression and metastasis, whereas insufficient growth leads to tissue ischemia and lymphedema. Lymphatic and blood vascular endothelial cells are regulated by two endothelial specific(More)
Tumor-associated neovascularization allows tumor cells to express their critical growth advantage, whereas lymphatic invasion is crucial for the metastatic process. Various growth factors stimulate blood and lymphatic neovascularization and modulate vessel permeability in tumors. The first anti-angiogenic drugs are already in routine use, and new(More)
The formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is required for the growth of most tumors. The tumor microenvironment also induces lymphangiogenic factors that promote metastatic spread. Anti-angiogenic therapy targets the mechanisms behind the growth of the tumor vasculature. During the past two decades, several strategies targeting blood and lymphatic(More)
Angiogenic growth factors have recently been linked to tissue metabolism. We have used genetic gain- and loss-of function models to elucidate the effects and mechanisms of action of vascular endothelial growth factor-B (VEGF-B) in the heart. A cardiomyocyte-specific VEGF-B transgene induced an expanded coronary arterial tree and reprogramming of(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular endothelial growth factor-B (VEGF-B) binds to VEGF receptor-1 and neuropilin-1 and is abundantly expressed in the heart, skeletal muscle, and brown fat. The biological function of VEGF-B is incompletely understood. METHODS AND RESULTS Unlike placenta growth factor, which binds to the same receptors, adeno-associated viral delivery of(More)
BACKGROUND Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) belong to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The etiology of IBD is still unknown. Therapy remains empiric or is used for the relief of specific symptoms. The erbB-1 oncogene coding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is typed as a prognostic marker in several benign and malignant tissues. The(More)