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BACKGROUND The Xpert MTB/RIF test for tuberculosis is being rolled out in many countries, but evidence is lacking regarding its implementation outside laboratories, ability to inform same-day treatment decisions at the point of care, and clinical effect on tuberculosis-related morbidity. We aimed to assess the feasibility, accuracy, and clinical effect of(More)
This paper is an expanded and more detailed version of the work [1] in which the Operator Quantum Error Correction protocol was introduced. This is a new scheme for the error correction of quantum operations that incorporates the known techniques — i.e. the standard error correction model, the method of decoherence-free subspaces, and the noiseless(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term treatment-related outcomes in patients with extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis are unknown. We followed up a cohort of patients to address knowledge gaps. METHODS Between March, 2008, and August, 2012, we prospectively followed up a cohort of 107 patients from three provinces in South Africa, who had been diagnosed with XDR(More)
BACKGROUND The immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) remains incompletely understood, and we know of only 1 disease site-specific study of the underlying immunology; we recently showed that Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture positivity and increased neutrophils in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-associated tuberculosis is difficult to diagnose and results in high mortality. Frequent extra-pulmonary presentation, inability to obtain sputum, and paucibacillary samples limits the usefulness of nucleic-acid amplification tests and smear microscopy. We therefore assessed a urine-based, lateral flow, point-of-care, lipoarabinomannan assay(More)
The accurate estimation of livestock weights is important for many aspects of livestock management including nutrition, production and appropriate dosing of pharmaceuticals. Subtherapeutic dosing has been shown to accelerate pathogen resistance which can have subsequent widespread impacts. There are a number of published models for the prediction of live(More)
BACKGROUND The commercially available urine LAM strip test, a point-of-care tuberculosis (TB) assay, requires evaluation in a primary care setting where it is most needed. There is currently inadequate data to guide implementation in TB and HIV-endemic settings. METHODS Adult HIV-infected outpatients with suspected pulmonary TB able to self-expectorate(More)
BACKGROUND The successful cure of tuberculosis (TB) is dependent on adherence to treatment. Various factors influence adherence, however, few are easily modifiable. There are limited data regarding correlates of psychological distress and their association with non-adherence to anti-TB treatment. METHODS In a trial of a new TB test, we measured(More)
BACKGROUND Lipohypertrophy does not appear to be an adverse ART reaction while lipoatrophy is clearly associated with the use of stavudine (d4T) and zidovudine (AZT). In low and middle income countries d4T has only recently been phased out and AZT is still widely being used. Several case definitions have been developed to diagnose lipodystrophy, but none of(More)