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BACKGROUND The Xpert MTB/RIF test for tuberculosis is being rolled out in many countries, but evidence is lacking regarding its implementation outside laboratories, ability to inform same-day treatment decisions at the point of care, and clinical effect on tuberculosis-related morbidity. We aimed to assess the feasibility, accuracy, and clinical effect of(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin D, antiproliferative and proapoptotic in breast cancer cell lines, can reduce the development of mammary tumors in carcinogen-exposed rats. Current evidence in humans is limited with some suggestion that vitamin D-related factors may reduce the risk of breast cancer. We conducted a population-based case-control study to assess the(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term treatment-related outcomes in patients with extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis are unknown. We followed up a cohort of patients to address knowledge gaps. METHODS Between March, 2008, and August, 2012, we prospectively followed up a cohort of 107 patients from three provinces in South Africa, who had been diagnosed with XDR(More)
Evidence has emerged for a role of vitamin D in the development of breast cancer, and there is some suggestion that its antiproliferative effect is greater in hormone-receptor-positive cells. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the association between vitamin D and hormone-receptor-defined breast cancer, and the results are conflicting. Considering(More)
Vitamin D may be associated with reduced risks of several types of cancer, including colon, prostate, and breast. We examined the relationship between vitamin D-related questions administered in a telephone interview and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Three hundred and eight eligible women were randomly selected from controls in a breast cancer(More)
This paper is an expanded and more detailed version of the work [1] in which the Operator Quantum Error Correction protocol was introduced. This is a new scheme for the error correction of quantum operations that incorporates the known techniques — i.e. the standard error correction model, the method of decoherence-free subspaces, and the noiseless(More)
The accurate estimation of livestock weights is important for many aspects of livestock management including nutrition, production and appropriate dosing of pharmaceuticals. Subtherapeutic dosing has been shown to accelerate pathogen resistance which can have subsequent widespread impacts. There are a number of published models for the prediction of live(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of the rate and pattern of patient transfers among institutions within a single metropolitan area on the rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission among patients in hospitals and nursing homes. METHODS A stochastic, discrete-time, Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the rate and spread(More)
1346 20 JUNE 2014 • VOL 344 ISSUE 6190 sciencemag.org SCIENCE O ur understanding of genome biology, genomics, and disease, and even human history, has advanced tremendously with the completion of the Human Genome Project. Technological advances coupled with significant cost reductions in genomic research have yielded novel insights into disease etiology,(More)
BACKGROUND The immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) remains incompletely understood, and we know of only 1 disease site-specific study of the underlying immunology; we recently showed that Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture positivity and increased neutrophils in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of(More)