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The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker, which is a key rice pest in northern parts of Iran, overwinters in rice stubble and weeds as mature larvae. Diapause of this pest is initiated between October to November and terminates in March. Seasonal variations in the supercooling point, survival at low temperatures, and sugar contents were studied in(More)
For a fixed permutation τ, let S N (τ) be the set of permutations on N elements that avoid the pattern τ. Madras and Liu (2010) conjectured that lim N→∞ |S N+1 (τ)| |S N (τ)| exists; if it does, it must equal the Stanley–Wilf limit. We prove the conjecture for every permutation τ of length 5 or less, as well as for some longer cases (including 704 of the(More)
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