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We assessed the relationship between chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water with respiratory complications and humoral immune response by measuring serum immunoglobulin profiles in the affected subjects (arsenicosis patients) living in the arsenic endemic rural villages of Bangladesh. The duration of exposure was determined through detailed history(More)
Phenotypic and genotypic tolerance in 71 Listeria monocytogenes isolates from different varieties of foods to benzalkonium chloride (BC) and cadmium were investigated by susceptibility test and molecular methods. To investigate the role of efflux pumps in BC tolerance, reserpine, an efflux pump inhibitor, was added to the BC tolerant strains. Tolerance to(More)
Seasonal epidemics of cholera in Bangladesh are self-limited in nature, presumably due to phage predation of the causative Vibrio cholerae during the late stage of an epidemic, when cholera patients excrete large quantities of phage in their stools. To further understand the mechanisms involved, we studied the effect of phage on the infectivity and survival(More)
The El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae O1, causing the current seventh pandemic of cholera, has replaced the classical biotype, which caused the sixth pandemic. The CTX prophages encoding cholera toxin in the two biotypes have distinct repressor (rstR) genes. Recently, new variants of El Tor strains that carry the classical type (CTX(class)) prophage have(More)
Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the epidemic diarrheal disease cholera, interacts with diverse environmental bacteriophages. These interactions promote genetic diversity or cause selective enrichment of phage-resistant bacterial clones. To identify bacterial genes involved in mediating the phage-resistant phenotype, we screened a(More)
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES Factor causing the elimination of the classical biotype of Vibrio cholerae O1, and its replacement by the El Tor biotype causing the 7 th cholera pandemic are unclear. Possible ability of the El Tor strains to adapt better than the classical strains to undefined environmental forces have been largely implicated for the change. Here(More)
Serum complement function was evaluated in 125 affected subjects suffering from drinking water arsenic toxicity. Their mean duration of exposure was 7.4 ± 5.3 yrs, and the levels of arsenic in drinking water and urine samples were 216 ± 211 and 223 ± 302 μg/L, respectively. The mean bactericidal activity of complement from the arsenic patients was 92% and(More)
A newly emerged Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strain with multidrug resistance is considered a threat to public health. Recent strategies to suppress virulence factors production instead of bacterial growth may lead to less selective pressure for the emergence of resistant strains. The use of spices and their active constituents as the inhibitory agents(More)
To search natural compounds having inhibitory effect on bacterial growth is important, particularly in view of growing multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of bacterial pathogens. Like other bacterial pathogens, MDR Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of diarrheal disease cholera, is becoming a great concern. As an approach of searching new antimicrobial(More)
Bacillus strain CTP-09 yielded maximum productivity (1120 IU/L.h) of extracellular endoglucanase (CMCase) on 0.5% cellobiose after 10 h fermentation at 55 degrees C. The purified enzyme is mono-meric in nature and exhibits stability up to 80 degrees C and over a pH range (6.0-9.0). Activation energy, enthalpy and entropy of catalysis, and inactivation(More)