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OBJECTIVE To determine if urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) may serve as a biomarker to monitor antituberculosis (TB) therapy response, and whether LAM results before and after treatment are predictive of patient outcomes. DESIGN Prospective cohort. SETTING Outpatient referral clinic and tertiary hospital in South Africa. PARTICIPANTS Adults (≥18 years)(More)
Fluconazole (FLZ) has emerged as a highly successful agent in the management of systemic infections of Candida. Cure rates for symptomatic candidiasis following single 150-mg FLZ dose therapy exceed 90%. In vitro, however, FLZ is fungistatic only in a narrow pH range and is not effective at vaginal pH, 4.2. This study evaluated the effect of FLZ on Candida(More)
Emergence of resistance to antifungal drugs during therapy for invasive aspergillosis has received scant attention. We recovered Aspergillus isolates from six patients with invasive aspergillosis, who were receiving amphotericin B before fungal isolation. Although isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B in vitro, none of the patients survived. The MIC(More)
The diagnostic gold standard for active tuberculosis (TB) is the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) by culture or molecular methods. However, despite its limited sensitivity, sputum smear microscopy is still the mainstay of TB diagnosis in resource-limited settings. Consequently, diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB remains(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to determine the rate of the K65R mutation in patients receiving tenofovir (TDF)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) with subtype C HIV infection. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. METHODS All patients initiated on stavudine (d4T) with lamivudine (3TC) or TDF with 3TC and a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor at McCord(More)
The ability of antigen-specific T cells to simultaneously produce multiple cytokines is thought to correlate with the functional capacity and efficacy of T cells. These 'polyfunctional' T cells have been associated with control of HIV. We aimed to assess the impact of co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) on HIV-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell(More)
BACKGROUND There is no validated case definition for human immunodeficiency virus-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). We measured the level of agreement of 2 published case definitions (hereafter referred to as CD1 and CD2) with expert opinion in a prospective cohort of patients who were starting antiretroviral therapy in South(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the International Network for the Study of HIV-associated IRIS (INSHI) case definitions for tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in a South African cohort. METHODS Prospective cohort of 498 adult HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients were followed up for 24 weeks(More)
BACKGROUND Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a widely recognised complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART), but there are still limited data from resource-limited settings. Our objective was to characterize the incidence, clinical spectrum, risk factors and contribution to mortality of IRIS in two urban ART clinics in South Africa. (More)
Immune restoration disease associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB IRD) is clinically important among HIV patients commencing antiretroviral therapy in countries where tuberculosis is endemic. Vitamin D affects dendritic cell and T cell function and the antimicrobial activity of monocytes. Plasma levels of vitamin D and polymorphisms in the vitamin D(More)