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Alzheimer’s disease is considered a progressive brain disease in the older population. Late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) as a multifactorial dementia has a polygenic inheritance. Age, environment, and lifestyle along with a growing number of genetic factors have been reported as risk factors for LOAD. Our aim was to present results of LOAD association(More)
OBJECTIVE To obtain a better insight into the effect of the epsilon (e) 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) on the risk of late onset Alzheimer`s disease (LOAD), and assess its heterogeneity in geographic regions. METHODS We performed a systemic review and meta-analysis of available studies. An electronic and manual search of international and(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease of the central nervous system. Its etiology is still an unanswered enigma; its symptoms are varied and unpredictable; and there is no cure for it. Genetics has been introduced as a contributing factor to MS. Not only may MS stem from nuclear gene variations/mutations, but also it may arise from mitochondrial(More)
BACKGROUND Recent findings suggest that production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α), is increased in the brain tissue of patients suffering late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Several epidemiological studies also suggest that patients taking(More)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in older population. Growing evidence of genetic background that predisposes individuals to AD has been reported as the risk factors in recent years. The Department of Medical Genetics and the Immunology Research Centre investigated the distribution of 11 polymorphisms in 160 patients with late(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia which affects people older than 60 years of age. In AD, the dysregulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) level leads to the appearance of senile plaques which contain Aβ depositions. Aβ is a complex biological molecule which interacts with many types of receptors and/or forms insoluble assemblies(More)
BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a simple, high-resolution technique to quantify the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macula volume, which provide an indirect measurement of axonal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to evaluate OCT finding in relapsing-remitting MS patients of the northwest of Iran and(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the brain and spinal cord and long has been the topic of global research; yet there is no commonly accepted cause and no cure for the disease. Mounting evidence supports the role of genetics in susceptibility to MS. From this perspective, a current effort focuses on the neurogenetics of the complex pathogenesis of(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease of the central nervous system for which no definitive therapy has yet been developed. The etiology remains uncertain, but there is evidence of genetic susceptibility to the disease, including contributions from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations to the pathogenesis of MS. G15257A and G15812A are(More)
BACKGROUND Headache is one of the most disturbing symptoms with common neurological signs. Variations in optic nerve perfusion quality or retinal microcirculation may end up in ganglion cell damage in patients with migraine. METHODS Sixty patients diagnosed with migraine and thirty normal individuals were evaluated in groups including migraine with aura,(More)