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INTRODUCTION Information about the basal ganglia has accumulated at a prodigious pace over the past decade, necessitating major revisions in our concepts of the structural and functional organization of these nuclei. From earlier data it had appeared that the basal ganglia served primarily to integrate diverse inputs from the entire cerebral cortex and to(More)
Movement disorders associated with basal ganglia dysfunction comprise a spectrum of abnormalities that range from the hypokinetic disorders (of which Parkinson's disease is the best-known example) at one extreme to the hyperkinetic disorders (exemplified by Huntington's disease and hemiballismus) at the other. Both extremes of this movement disorder(More)
The central theme of the "segregated circuits" hypothesis is that structural convergence and functional integration occurs within, rather than between, each of the identified circuits. Admittedly, the anatomical evidence upon which this scheme is based remains incomplete. The hypothesis continues to be predicated largely on comparisons of anterograde and(More)
1. The neuronal mechanisms underlying the major motor signs of Parkinson's disease were studied in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian monkeys. Three African green monkeys were systemically treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) until parkinsonian signs, including akinesia, rigidity, and a prominent 4- to 8-Hz tremor, appeared. The(More)
Intrinsic, striatal tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-i) cells have received little consideration. In this study we have characterized these neurons and their regulatory response to nigrostriatal dopaminergic deafferentation. TH-i cells were observed in the striatum of both control and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated(More)
Although it is known that Parkinson's disease results from a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, the resulting alterations in activity in the basal ganglia responsible for parkinsonian motor deficits are still poorly characterized. Recently, increased activity in the subthalamic nucleus has been implicated in the motor abnormalities. To(More)
1. The effects of reversible and irreversible pharmacological manipulations of the neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on parkinsonian motor signs and neuronal activity in the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) were studied in African green monkeys rendered parkinsonian by treatment with(More)
The influence of changes in the mean velocity of movement on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied using positron emission tomography (PET) in nine healthy right-handed adults while they performed a smooth pursuit visuomanual tracking task. Images of relative rCBF were obtained while subjects moved a hand-held joystick to track the movement of a(More)
To investigate the difficulty that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have in performing fast movements, we used H(2)(15)O PET to study regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) associated with performance of a simple predictive visuomanual tracking task at three different velocities. Tracking movements in PD patients (versus tracking with the eyes alone)(More)
1. To examine the functional organization of the primate "motor" thalamus, neuronal activity was studied systematically in awake behaving monkeys throughout the nucleus ventralis lateralis, pars oralis (VLo), nucleus ventralis posterior lateralis, pars oralis (VPLo), ventralis lateralis, pars caudalis (VLc), and portions of ventralis anterior (VA) and Area(More)