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INTRODUCTION Information about the basal ganglia has accumulated at a prodigious pace over the past decade, necessitating major revisions in our concepts of the structural and functional organization of these nuclei. From earlier data it had appeared that the basal ganglia served primarily to integrate diverse inputs from the entire cerebral cortex and to(More)
Movement disorders associated with basal ganglia dysfunction comprise a spectrum of abnormalities that range from the hypokinetic disorders (of which Parkinson's disease is the best-known example) at one extreme to the hyperkinetic disorders (exemplified by Huntington's disease and hemiballismus) at the other. Both extremes of this movement disorder(More)
The central theme of the "segregated circuits" hypothesis is that structural convergence and functional integration occurs within, rather than between, each of the identified circuits. Admittedly, the anatomical evidence upon which this scheme is based remains incomplete. The hypothesis continues to be predicated largely on comparisons of anterograde and(More)
1. The neuronal mechanisms underlying the major motor signs of Parkinson's disease were studied in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian monkeys. Three African green monkeys were systemically treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) until parkinsonian signs, including akinesia, rigidity, and a prominent 4- to 8-Hz tremor, appeared. The(More)
Although it is known that Parkinson's disease results from a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, the resulting alterations in activity in the basal ganglia responsible for parkinsonian motor deficits are still poorly characterized. Recently, increased activity in the subthalamic nucleus has been implicated in the motor abnormalities. To(More)
Views of the anatomy and function of the basal ganglia and their role in motor and nonmotor disorders have undergone major revisions during the past decades. The basal ganglia are now appreciated as components of parallel, reentrant cortico-subcortical circuits, which originate from individual cortical areas, traverse the basal ganglia and thalamus, and(More)
Intrinsic, striatal tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-i) cells have received little consideration. In this study we have characterized these neurons and their regulatory response to nigrostriatal dopaminergic deafferentation. TH-i cells were observed in the striatum of both control and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated(More)
1. The effects of reversible and irreversible pharmacological manipulations of the neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on parkinsonian motor signs and neuronal activity in the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) were studied in African green monkeys rendered parkinsonian by treatment with(More)
 The basal ganglia are currently viewed as components of segregated corticosubcortical reentrant circuits. One of these circuits, the ”motor” circuit, is critically involved in the development of parkinsonian motor signs. Current pathophysiologic models postulate that parkinsonism is associated with increased activity in the basal ganglia output nuclei. The(More)