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Neurovascular dysfunction contributes to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cerebrovascular abnormalities and blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage have been shown in AD. The BBB dysfunction can lead to leakage of potentially neurotoxic plasma components in brain that may contribute to neuronal injury. Pericytes are integral in maintaining the BBB integrity.(More)
Members of the TGF-beta superfamily are important regulators of skeletal development. TGF-betas signal through heteromeric type I and type II receptor serine/threonine kinases. When over-expressed, a cytoplasmically truncated type II receptor can compete with the endogenous receptors for complex formation, thereby acting as a dominant-negative mutant(More)
Malignant primary glial and secondary metastatic brain tumors represent distinct pathological entities. Nevertheless, both tumor types induce profound angiogenic responses in the host brain microvasculature that promote tumor growth. We hypothesized that primary and metastatic tumors induce similar microvascular changes that could function as conserved(More)
To characterize the overall survival (OS) and cause specific survival (CSS), and variables affecting outcome, in patients with primary spinal cord astrocytoma (SCA) and ependymoma (SCE). About 664 patients with SCA and 1,057 patients with SCE were analyzed using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. For grade 1, 2, 3 and 4 SCA, the(More)
Recently, a number of neoplastic and nonneoplastic entities have been reported that radiographically and clinically mimic meningiomas. Because these lesions occur infrequently and may resemble a meningioma during intraoperative analysis, they may not be considered in the differential diagnosis. This review (and case illustrations) considers some of the(More)
Catecholamines are postulated to regulate growth hormone (GH) secretion by their influence on the release of two hypothalamic substances, somatostatin, which inhibits GH release, and GH-releasing factor, as yet unidentified. Extensive pharmacologic studies in man and animals indicate a stimulatory effect of central norepinephrine and dopamine on GH, but the(More)
OBJECTIVE Adult gliomas have indistinct borders. As the ratio of neoplastic cells to normal cells becomes lower, the ability to detect these cells diminishes. We describe a device designed to augment intraoperative identification of both solid tumor and infiltrating tumor margins. METHODS A novel, intraoperative, optical spectroscopic tool, using both(More)
We evaluate the value of MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast material-enhanced perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) in preoperative grading of supratentorial nonenhancing gliomas. This institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study involved 52(More)
Systemic administration of nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) produces a long-lasting kappa-opioid receptor (kappaOR) antagonism and has kappa(1)-selectivity in nonhuman primates. The aim of this study was to establish the pharmacological basis of central kappaOR antagonism in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). After intracisternal (i.c.) administration of small(More)
Clinical diagnosis and treatment decisions for a subset of primary human brain tumors, gliomas, are based almost exclusively on tissue histology. Approaches for glioma diagnosis can be highly subjective due to the heterogeneity and infiltrative nature of these tumors and depend on the skill of the neuropathologist. There is therefore a critical need to(More)