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Frequent microbial and nonmicrobial challenges to epithelial cells trigger discrete pathways, promoting molecular changes such as the secretion of specific cytokines and chemokines and alterations to molecules displayed at the epithelial cell surface. In combination, these molecules impose key decisions on innate and adaptive immune cells. Depending on(More)
Although local regulation of T-cell responses by epithelial cells is increasingly viewed as important, few molecules mediating such regulation have been identified. Skint1, a recently identified member of the Ig-supergene family expressed by thymic epithelial cells and keratinocytes, specifies the murine epidermal intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL)(More)
Butyrophilins (Btns) and butyrophilin-like (Btnl) molecules are emerging as novel regulators of immune responses in mice and humans. Several clues point to their probable importance: many of the genes are located within the MHC; they are structurally related to B7-co-stimulatory molecules; they are functionally implicated in T cell inhibition and in the(More)
Unrelenting environmental challenges to the gut epithelium place particular demands on the local immune system. In this context, intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) compose a large, highly conserved T cell compartment, hypothesized to provide a first line of defence via cytolysis of dysregulated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and(More)
e-mail: adrian.hayday@kcl.ac.uk A the Seventeen Gallery in London, the ‘ChineseHYPHENCanadian’ upbringing of writer Fed Wah is the basis of an exhibit. Wah explains the deliberate emphasis on the hyphen as opening new combinations, creating a space for mongrels and hybrids or, as Homi Bhabha implies, things new and unrecognized1. Immunologists might do well(More)
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