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Height–diameter relationships based on stand characteristics (trees/ha, basal area, and dominant stand height) were investigated for balsam fir, balsam poplar, black spruce, jack pine, red pine, trembling aspen, white birch, and white spruce using data from permanent growth study plots in northern Ontario, Canada. Approximately half the data were used to(More)
Biochar is normally produced as a by-product of bioenergy. However, if biochar is produced as a co-product with bioenergy from sustainably managed forests and used for soil amendment, it could provide a carbon neutral or even carbon negative solution for current environmental degradation problems. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of biochar(More)
Biochar-based bioenergy production and subsequent land application of biochar can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by fixing atmospheric carbon into the soil for a long period of time. A thorough life cycle assessment of biochar-based bioenergy production and biochar land application in Northwestern Ontario is conducted using SimaPro® Ver. 8.1. The results(More)
Replacement of fossil fuel based energy with biochar-based bioenergy production can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions while mitigating the adverse impacts of climate change and global warming. However, the production of biochar-based bioenergy depends on a sustainable supply of biomass. Although, Northwestern Ontario has a rich and sustainable supply of(More)
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