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An increasing number of EEG and resting state fMRI studies in both humans and animals indicate that spontaneous low frequency fluctuations in cerebral activity at <0.1 Hz (infra-slow oscillations, ISOs) represent a fundamental component of brain functioning, being known to correlate with faster neuronal ensemble oscillations, regulate behavioural(More)
In the absence of external stimuli, the mammalian brain continues to display a rich variety of spontaneous activity. Such activity is often highly stereotypical, is invariably rhythmic, and can occur with periodicities ranging from a few milliseconds to several minutes. Recently, there has been a particular resurgence of interest in fluctuations in brain(More)
The cellular mechanisms underlying typical absence seizures, which characterize various idiopathic generalized epilepsies, are not fully understood, but impaired gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibition remains an attractive hypothesis. In contrast, we show here that extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptor-dependent 'tonic' inhibition is increased in(More)
Several aspects of perception, particularly those pertaining to vision, are closely linked to the occipital alpha (alpha) rhythm. However, how the alpha rhythm relates to the activity of neurons that convey primary visual information is unknown. Here we show that in behaving cats, thalamocortical neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) that operate(More)
During sleep and anesthesia, neocortical neurons exhibit rhythmic UP/DOWN membrane potential states. Although UP states are maintained by synaptic activity, the mechanisms that underlie the initiation and robust rhythmicity of UP states are unknown. Using a physiologically validated model of UP/DOWN state generation in mouse neocortical slices whereby the(More)
UNLABELLED Serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine; 5-HT) is implicated in a variety of brain functions including not only the regulation of mood and control of behavior but also the modulation of perception. 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) often fire locked to sensory stimuli, but little is known about how 5-HT affects sensory processing, especially(More)
The dynamic clamp is a technique which allows the introduction of artificial conductances into living cells. Up to now, this technique has been mainly used to add small numbers of 'virtual' ion channels to real cells or to construct small hybrid neuronal circuits. In this paper we describe a prototype computer system, NeuReal, that extends the dynamic clamp(More)
Up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, gelatinase B) in the nervous system has been demonstrated when excitotoxicity-induced tissue remodeling and neuronal death occurs. Induction of MMP-9 by a natural stimulus has not been observed yet. Using RT-PCR and gelatin-zymography we demonstrated MMP-9 induction at transcriptional and protein levels in(More)
It is now widely accepted that certain types of cognitive functions are intimately related to synchronized neuronal oscillations at both low (alpha/theta) (4-7/8-13 Hz) and high (beta/gamma) (18-35/30-70 Hz) frequencies. The thalamus is a key participant in many of these oscillations, yet the cellular mechanisms by which this participation occurs are poorly(More)
During non-REM sleep the EEG is dominated by slow waves which result from synchronized UP and DOWN states in the component neurons of the thalamocortical network. This review focuses on four areas of recent progress in our understanding of these events. Thus, it has now been conclusively demonstrated that the full expression of slow waves, both of natural(More)