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Delphinoids (Delphinidae, Odontoceti) produce tonal sounds and clicks by forcing pressurized air past phonic lips in the nasal complex. It has been proposed that homologous, hypertrophied nasal structures in the deep-diving sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) (Physeteridae, Odontoceti) are dedicated to the production of clicks. However, air volumes in(More)
Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are deep-diving predators foraging in meso- and bathypelagic ecosystems off the continental shelves. To investigate the ecophysiological and communicative function of various click types from male sperm whales in a high-latitude habitat, we deployed a large-aperture array of calibrated hydrophones off northern Norway(More)
Field recordings of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were made in the inner Danish waters with a vertical array of three or four hydrophones. The back-calculated source level ranged from 178 to 205 dB re 1 muPa pp @ 1 m with a mean source level of 191 dB re 1 muPa pp @ 1 m. The maximum source level was more than 30 dB above what has been measured from(More)
Toothed whales use echolocation to locate and track prey. Most knowledge of toothed whale echolocation stems from studies on trained animals, and little is known about how toothed whales regulate and use their biosonar systems in the wild. Recent research suggests that an automatic gain control mechanism in delphinid biosonars adjusts the biosonar output to(More)
Visually dominant animals use gaze adjustments to organize perceptual inputs for cognitive processing. Thereby they manage the massive sensory load from complex and noisy scenes. Echolocation, as an active sensory system, may provide more opportunities to control such information flow by adjusting the properties of the sound source. However, most studies of(More)
In sperm whales (Physeter catodon L. 1758) the nose is vastly hypertrophied, accounting for about one-third of the length or weight of an adult male. Norris and Harvey [in Animal Orientation and Navigation, NASA SP-262 (1972), pp. 397-417] ascribed a sound-generating function to this organ complex. A sound generator weighing upward of 10 tons and with a(More)
Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) depend on frequency-modulated whistles for many aspects of their social behavior, including group cohesion and recognition of familiar individuals. Vocalization amplitude and frequency influences communication range and may be shaped by many ecological and physiological factors including energetic costs. Here, a calibrated(More)
Traditionally, sperm whale clicks have been described as multipulsed, long duration, nondirectional signals of moderate intensity and with a spectrum peaking below 10 kHz. Such properties are counterindicative of a sonar function, and quite different from the properties of dolphin sonar clicks. Here, data are presented suggesting that the traditional view(More)
Toothed whales depend on echolocation for orientation and prey localization, and source parameters of echolocation clicks from free-ranging animals therefore convey valuable information about the acoustic physiology and behavioral ecology of the recorded species. Recordings of wild hourglass (Lagenorhynchus cruciger) and Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus(More)