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BACKGROUND Pretreatment of biomass for lignocellulosic ethanol production generates compounds that can inhibit microbial metabolism. The furan aldehydes hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural have received increasing attention recently. In the present study, the effects of HMF and furfural on redox metabolism, energy metabolism and gene expression were(More)
BACKGROUND Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass generates a number of undesired degradation products that can inhibit microbial metabolism. Two of these compounds, the furan aldehydes 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (furfural), have been shown to be an impediment for viable ethanol production. In the present study, HMF and furfural were(More)
The production of recombinant proteins is frequently enhanced at the levels of transcription, codon usage, protein folding and secretion. Overproduction of heterologous proteins, however, also directly affects the primary metabolism of the producing cells. By incorporation of the production of a heterologous protein into a genome scale metabolic model of(More)
Development of robust yeast strains that can efficiently ferment lignocellulose-based feedstocks is one of the requirements for achieving economically feasible bioethanol production processes. With this goal, several genes have been identified as promising candidates to confer improved tolerance to S. cerevisiae. In most of the cases, however, the(More)
Commercially pure (CP) titanium and Ti 6Al 4V alloy were sputtered onto polycarbonate plastic implants to analyse hard tissue reactions to the two metals. The implants were inserted in the tibial metaphyses of five rabbits. Three months later they were removed and processed for light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations.(More)
BACKGROUND Production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass requires the development of robust microorganisms that can tolerate the stressful conditions prevailing in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Several inhibitors are known to affect the redox metabolism of cells. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered for increased robustness by(More)
With the growth of the Internet, an increase in network anomalies is inevitable. The anomalies may be due to equipment failures, network mis-configurations, or attacks. The attacks can range from simple port scans to sophisticated DDoS attacks. To detect anomalies through traffic measurement, a number of approaches have been proposed. These approaches can(More)
Intrusion detection is an important technique in computer network security. Senatus is a concept recently proposed in order to detect intrusions in a fashion of traffic classification and identification. There are two main tasks: I. Understand network attacks and their simulation tools then generate the attacks. Then simulate attacks in real backbone(More)
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