Significant advances have been made in the understanding of the pathophysiology, molecular targets and therapies for the treatment of a variety of nervous-system disorders. Particular therapies involve electrical sensing and stimulation of neural activity, and significant effort has therefore been devoted to the refinement of neural electrodes. However,… (More)
— Two algorithms for characterization of input error events producing specified distance at the output of certain binary-input partial-response (PR) channels are presented. Lists of error events are tabulated for PR channels of interest in digital recording.
The electronics surrounding us in our daily lives rely almost exclusively on electrons as the dominant charge carrier. In stark contrast, biological systems rarely use electrons but rather use ions and molecules of varying size. Due to the unique combination of both electronic and ionic/molecular conductivity in conducting and semiconducting organic… (More)
In treating epilepsy, the ideal solution is to act at a seizure's onset, but only in the affected regions of the brain. Here, an organic electronic ion pump is demonstrated, which directly delivers on-demand pure molecules to specific brain regions. State-of-the-art organic devices and classical pharmacology are combined to control pathological activity in… (More)
Precise control over processing, transport and delivery of ionic and molecular signals is of great importance in numerous fields of life sciences. Integrated circuits based on ion transistors would be one approach to route and dispense complex chemical signal patterns to achieve such control. To date several types of ion transistors have been reported;… (More)
Many drugs provide their therapeutic action only at specific sites in the body, but are administered in ways that cause the drug's spread throughout the organism. This can lead to serious side effects. Local delivery from an implanted device may avoid these issues, especially if the delivery rate can be tuned according to the need of the patient. We turned… (More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The Artelon CMC spacer is designed for surgical treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) in the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb (CMC-I). Good results using this degradable device were previously presented in a pilot study. We now present results from a larger randomized, controlled, multicenter study. PATIENTS AND METHODS 109 patients… (More)
Full-wave rectification of ionic currents is obtained by constructing the typical four-diode bridge out of ion conducting bipolar membranes. Together with conjugated polymer electrodes addressed with alternating current, the bridge allows for generation of a controlled ionic direct current for extended periods of time without the production of toxic species… (More)