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Stem cell function is regulated by intrinsic as well as microenvironmental factors, including chemical and mechanical signals. Conducting polymer-based cell culture substrates provide a powerful tool to control both chemical and physical stimuli sensed by stem cells. Here we show that polypyrrole (PPy), a commonly used conducting polymer, can be tailored to(More)
Significant advances have been made in the understanding of the pathophysiology, molecular targets and therapies for the treatment of a variety of nervous-system disorders. Particular therapies involve electrical sensing and stimulation of neural activity, and significant effort has therefore been devoted to the refinement of neural electrodes. However,(More)
The electronics surrounding us in our daily lives rely almost exclusively on electrons as the dominant charge carrier. In stark contrast, biological systems rarely use electrons but rather use ions and molecules of varying size. Due to the unique combination of both electronic and ionic/molecular conductivity in conducting and semiconducting organic(More)
Precise control over processing, transport and delivery of ionic and molecular signals is of great importance in numerous fields of life sciences. Integrated circuits based on ion transistors would be one approach to route and dispense complex chemical signal patterns to achieve such control. To date several types of ion transistors have been reported;(More)
In treating epilepsy, the ideal solution is to act at a seizure's onset, but only in the affected regions of the brain. Here, an organic electronic ion pump is demonstrated, which directly delivers on-demand pure molecules to specific brain regions. State-of-the-art organic devices and classical pharmacology are combined to control pathological activity in(More)
Many drugs provide their therapeutic action only at specific sites in the body, but are administered in ways that cause the drug's spread throughout the organism. This can lead to serious side effects. Local delivery from an implanted device may avoid these issues, especially if the delivery rate can be tuned according to the need of the patient. We turned(More)
Conducting polymers are soft, flexible materials, exhibiting material properties that can be reversibly changed by electrochemically altering the redox state. Surface chemistry is an important determinant for the molecular events of cell adhesion. Therefore, we analyzed whether the redox state of the conducting polymer PEDOT:Tosylate can be used to control(More)