Magne Refsnes

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Identifying the ambient particulate matter (PM) fractions or constituents, critically involved in eliciting adverse health effects, is crucial to the implementation of more cost-efficient abatement strategies to improve air quality. This review focuses on the importance of different particle properties for PM-induced effects, and whether there is(More)
Airborne particulate matter (PM) has a complex composition, and the relative contribution of different compounds to PM-induced effects is only partly understood. The present study compared the capability of selected components commonly found in PM, to induce pro-inflammatory responses in lung epithelial cells. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB), ZnCl(2),(More)
Presently, little is known about the potential health effects of mineral particles other than asbestos and quartz. In this study, a human epithelial lung cell line (A549), primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) and primary rat type 2 (T2) cells were exposed to stone quarry particles of two size fractions (<10 and <2.5 microm) from nine(More)
Several studies have shown that particles of smaller size may be more potent than larger to induce inflammatory and toxic responses in cultured lung cells. However, the relative importance of different size fractions of ambient PM to induce such effects is still not known. In this study, we investigated the potency of different size fractions of urban(More)
In this study we show that benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and the cyclopenta polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CP-PAH) cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene (CPP), benz[j]aceanthrylene (B[j]A) and benz[l]aceanthrylene (B[l]A) induce apoptosis in Hepa1c1c7 cells, as measured by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The compounds induced formation of the active form of(More)
Crystalline silica has been shown to trigger pulmonary inflammation both in vivo and in vitro, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study we focus on the intracellular signaling pathways regulating chemokine release from lung epithelial cells after crystalline silica exposure. Our results show that silica particles induced(More)
Alveolar macrophages and endothelial cells are both involved in lung inflammation and remodeling of lung alveolar structures. In the present study, monocytes (precursors for macrophages) were exposed to crystalline silica and examined for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses in non-contact co-cultures with endothelial cells. The time courses for(More)
Exposure to diesel engine exhaust particles (DEPs) has been associated with several adverse health outcomes in which inflammation seems to play a key role. DEPs contain a range of different inorganic and organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During the metabolic activation of PAHs, CYP1A1 enzymes are known to play a critical(More)
Exposure to fluorides can induce inflammatory reactions, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in different experimental systems. Fluorides are known G-protein activators, but less is known about fluoride effects downstream of G-protein activation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether the induction of apoptosis by fluorides and inhibition of(More)
Physical and chemical properties such as structure, composition and surface reactivity determine the biological activity of mineral particles. Long-term exposure to crystalline silica is known to cause persistent pulmonary inflammation leading to adverse health effects. There is less information about the potential health effects of amorphous(More)