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Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are substances which augment immune response. BRMs can be cytokines which are produced endogenously in our body by immune cells or derivatives of bacteria, fungi, brown algae, Aloe vera and photosynthetic plants. Such exogeneous derivatives (exogeneous BRMs) can be nucleic acid (CpG), lipid (lipotechoic acid), protein or(More)
A mannose-rich polysaccharide biological response modifier (BRM), derived from Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berg., was demonstrated to be a potent murine B- and T-cell stimulator in our previous study. We here report the stimulatory activity of PAC-I on murine peritoneal macrophage. The polysaccharide when injected into mice enhanced the migration of(More)
Alkaline-soluble antitumor polysaccharide was prepared from the cell wall of the mushroom Flammulina velutipes. The backbones) of the polysaccharide is mainly composed of beta-(1-->3)-D-linked glucose and its molecular weight was estimated to be about 200 kD. The polysaccharide was found to be non-toxic by brine shrimp assay. When injected into mice(More)
BACKGROUND Seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses may cause severe diseases and result in excess hospitalization and mortality in the older and younger adults, respectively. Early antiviral treatment may improve clinical outcomes. We examined potential outcomes and costs of test-guided versus empirical treatment in patients hospitalized for suspected(More)
Three purified polysaccharide fractions designated as PAC-I, PAC-II, and PAC-III were prepared from Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berg. by membrane fractionation and gel filtration HPLC. The polysaccharide fractions had molecular weights of 10,000 kDa, 1300 kDa, and 470 kDa, respectively. The major sugar residue in the polysaccharide fractions is(More)
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