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Callose (beta-1,3-glucan) is produced at different locations in response to biotic and abiotic cues. Arabidopsis contains 12 genes encoding callose synthase (CalS). We demonstrate that one of these genes, CalS5, encodes a callose synthase which is responsible for the synthesis of callose deposited at the primary cell wall of meiocytes, tetrads and(More)
TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN (TOR) kinase controls many cellular functions in eukaryotic cells in response to stress and nutrient availability and was shown to be essential for embryonic development in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrated that Arabidopsis RAPTOR1 (a TOR regulatory protein) interacts with the HEAT repeats of TOR and that RAPTOR1 regulates the(More)
Site-specific and rare cutting nucleases are valuable tools for genome engineering. The generation of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) promotes homologous recombination in eukaryotes and can facilitate gene targeting, additions, deletions, and inactivation. Zinc finger nucleases have been used to generate DSBs and subsequently, for genome editing but with(More)
TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors, secreted by phytopathogenic bacteria, recognize host DNA sequences through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each repeat comprises 33 to 35 conserved amino acids and targets a specific base pair by using two hypervariable residues [known as repeat variable diresidues (RVDs)] at positions 12 and 13. Here, we(More)
Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) can be used as DNA-targeting modules by engineering their repeat domains to dictate user-selected sequence specificity. TALEs have been shown to function as site-specific transcriptional activators in a variety of cell types and organisms. TALE nucleases (TALENs), generated by fusing the FokI cleavage domain to(More)
Plant trait engineering requires efficient targeted genome-editing technologies. Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)/ CRISPR associated (Cas) type II system is used for targeted genome-editing applications across eukaryotic species including plants. Delivery of genome engineering reagents and recovery of mutants remain challenging(More)
The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides bacteria and archaea with molecular immunity against invading phages and conjugative plasmids. Recently, CRISPR/Cas9 has been used for targeted genome editing in diverse eukaryotic species. In this study, we investigate whether the CRISPR/Cas9 system could be used in plants to confer molecular immunity against DNA viruses. We(More)
The development of highly efficient genome engineering reagents is of paramount importance to launch the next wave of biotechnology. TAL effectors have been developed as an adaptable DNA binding scaffold that can be engineered to bind to any user-defined sequence. Thus, TAL-based DNA binding modules have been used to generate chimeric proteins for a variety(More)