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Innate immune responses to vaccine adjuvants based on lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls, are driven by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and adaptor proteins including MyD88 and TRIF, leading to the production of inflammatory cytokines, type I interferons, and chemokines. We report here on the characterization of a(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the development of anti-viral CD8(+) CTL responses. This is straightforward if they are directly infected with virus, but is less clear in response to viruses that cannot productively infect DCS: Human CMV (HCMV) shows strain-specific cell tropism: fibroblast (Fb)-adapted laboratory strains (AD169) and recent(More)
Recent studies have defined vaccinia virus (VACV)-specific CD8(+) T cell epitopes in mice and humans. However, little is known about the epitope specificities of CD4(+) T cell responses. In this study, we identified 14 I-A(b)-restricted VACV-specific CD4(+) T cell epitopes by screening a large set of 2146 different 15-mer peptides in C57BL/6 mice. These(More)
Understanding immunity to vaccinia virus (VACV) is important for the development of safer vaccines for smallpox- and poxvirus-vectored recombinant vaccines. VACV is also emerging as an outstanding model for studying CD8(+) T cell immunodominance because of the large number of CD8(+) T cell epitopes known for this virus in both mice and humans. In this(More)
Vaccinia virus (VACV) affords long-lasting protection against variola virus, the agent of smallpox. VACV-reactive CD8 T cells contribute to protection but their molecular control is unknown. We show that the TNFR molecule OX40 (CD134) controls primary VACV-specific CD8 T cell expansion and antiviral cytokine production and dictates development of strong(More)
Successful vaccine development against HIV will likely require the induction of strong, long-lasting humoral and cellular immune responses in both the systemic and mucosal compartments. Based on the known immunological linkage between the upper-respiratory and urogenital tracts, we explored the potential of nasal adjuvants to boost immunization for the(More)
Diagnosis of tuberculosis often relies on the ex vivo IFN-γ release assays QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB. However, understanding of the immunological mechanisms underlying their diagnostic use is still incomplete. Accordingly, we investigated T cell responses for the TB Ags included in the these assays and other commonly studied Ags: early(More)
Considerable effort has been directed to develop Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccines to boost bacille Calmette-Guérin or for those who cannot be immunized with bacille Calmette-Guérin. We hypothesized that CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses with a heterologous prime/boost vaccine approach could induce long-lived vaccine efficacy against M. tuberculosis in(More)
Considerable effort has been directed to develop Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccines to boost bacille Calmette-Guérin or for those who cannot be immunized with bacille Calmette-Guérin. We hypothesized that CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses with a heterol-ogous prime/boost vaccine approach could induce long-lived vaccine efficacy against M. tuberculosis in(More)
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