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Schistosomes are parasitic platyhelminths that constitute an important public health problem globally. Here we describe optimized protocols for effectively suppressing gene expression in the intra-mammalian life stages of Schistosoma mansoni using RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is a mechanism by which gene-specific double stranded RNA (dsRNA) triggers(More)
In order to evaluate during experimental Trypanosoma brucei infections the potential role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the host-parasite interrelationship, C57BL/6 TNF-alpha knockout mice (TNF-alpha-/-) as well as C57BL/6 wild-type mice were infected with pleomorphic T. brucei AnTat 1.1 E parasites. In the TNF-alpha-/- mice, the peak levels(More)
In experimental murine trypanosomiasis, resistance is often scored as the capacity to control peak parasitemia levels, which results in prolonged survival. Infection-induced pathology has not systematically been used as a resistance criterion. Because this parameter could be the most relevant for comparative analysis of natural and experimental infections,(More)
Progress in diagnosis, treatment, and epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) depends on the existence of specific and sensitive diagnostic tools. Inherent shortcomings of serologic and parasitologic diagnostic methods can be overcome by molecular techniques. Therefore, we have developed a new polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test(More)
The pathogenic trypanosomes Trypanosoma equiperdum, T. evansi as well as T. brucei are morphologically identical. In horses, these parasites are considered to cause respectively dourine, surra and nagana. Previous molecular attempts to differentiate these species were not successful for T. evansi and T. equiperdum; only T. b. brucei could be differentiated(More)
African trypanosomiasis causes devastating effects on human populations and livestock herds in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Control of the disease is hampered by the lack of any efficient vaccination results in a field setting, and the severe side effects of current drug therapies. In addition, with the exception of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense(More)
Anti-trypanosomiasis vaccination still remains the best theoretical option in the fight against a disease that is continuously hovering between its wildlife reservoir and its reservoir in man and livestock. While antigenic variation of the parasite surface coat has been considered the major obstacle in the development of a functional vaccine, recent(More)
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is caused by protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense. Despite the enormous technological progress in molecular parasitology in recent years, the diagnosis of HAT is still problematic due to the lack of specific tools. To date, there are two realities when it comes to(More)
During the screening of a Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. b. brucei) cDNA library constructed from bloodstream form mRNA, we identified a 2.3kb cDNA encoding a proteasome beta subunit (ORF1) and a putative zinc finger protein (ORF2). Northern blot analysis indicated the presence of a digenic transcript as well as the two individual messengers in both(More)
The TNF-alpha-inducing capacity of different trypanosome components was analyzed in vitro, using as indicator cells a macrophage cell line (2C11/12) or peritoneal exudate cells from LPS-resistant C3H/HeJ mice and LPS-sensitive C3H/HeN mice. The variant-specific surface glycoprotein (VSG) was identified as the major TNF-alpha-inducing component present in(More)