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Acute gastric mucosal lesions represent an important clinical problem. The experimental model of acute gastritis such as water immersion restraint (WRS) stress is useful tool in examination of pathomechanism of acute gastric damage. Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the maintenance of gastric barrier, however the role of reactive oxygen species(More)
Impairment of blood perfusion in gastric mucosa results in the formation of erosions and ulcers. Nitric oxide (NO), produced via activity of NO-synthase (NOS), appears to be a one of major factors, involved in the regulation of the gastric blood flow (GBF). Inhibition of this enzyme by N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) results in local decrease of NO production,(More)
Ghrelin is an important hormone involved in the control of the human appetite center. Recently, protective properties of this hormone have been recognized in various models of impairment of the gastric mucosa, including stress, ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Ghrelin is predominantly secreted by the gastric mucosa of stomach, but there are other sources of(More)
Melatonin (MT), an indole formed enzymatically from L-trytophan (Trp), was first discovered in the bovine pineal gland in 1958 by Lerner et al. Melatonin is the most versatile and ubiquitous hormonal molecule produced not only in the pineal gland but also in various other tissues of invertebrates and vertebrates, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract(More)
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are major pathogenic factors in peptic ulcer disease but whether these two factors exert synergistic or antagonistic action on the gastric mucosa has been a subject of controversy. The classic concept states that there is an increased ulcer occurrence and bleeding in patients(More)
Various organs, including heart, kidneys, liver or brain, respond to brief exposures to ischemia with an increased resistance to severe ischemia/reperfusion and this phenomenon is called "preconditioning". No study so far has been undertaken to check whether such short, repeated gastric ischemic episodes protect gastric mucosa against severe damage caused(More)
Prostaglandins (PG) derived from COX-1 play an important role in the maintenance of mucosal integrity but the role of COX-2-derived products in mucosal defence mechanism has not been fully explained. Mild stress is known to prevent gastric mucosal lesions induced by severe stress via the phenomenon of adaptive cytoprotection but it remains unknown which COX(More)
Ulcer healing involves expression of various growth factors including hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) at the ulcer margin and the rise in plasma gastrin but the effects of locally applied HGF and gastrin, which are known to act as trophic factors for the gastric mucosa, with or without neutralizing antibodies against HGF and gastrin or COX-1 and COX-2(More)
Gastric microcirculation plays an important role in the maintenance of the gastric mucosal barrier and mucosal integrity. Sensory nerves are involved in the regulation of mucosal blood circulation and mucosal defense. Therefore, the ablation of these nerves by neurotoxic doses of capsaicin provides the possibility of determination of their role in gastric(More)