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The peptide hormone ghrelin is known to be present within stomach and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in gut. Although reports suggest that gastric function may be modulated by ghrelin acting via the vagus nerve, the gastrointestinal distribution and functions of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), are not clear and may show signs(More)
Mice lacking the Jak tyrosine kinase member Tyk2 become progressively obese due to aberrant development of Myf5+ brown adipose tissue (BAT). Tyk2 RNA levels in BAT and skeletal muscle, which shares a common progenitor with BAT, are dramatically decreased in mice placed on a high-fat diet and in obese humans. Expression of Tyk2 or the constitutively active(More)
The immunosuppressive effect of portal venous blood transfusions in organ transplantation has been well established and may be mediated by increased Kupffer cell production of the immunosuppressive arachidonic acid metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In this study, butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid known to enhance gene transcription, is hypothesized to(More)
The transcription factor STAT1 plays a central role in orchestrating responses to various pathogens by activating the transcription of nuclear-encoded genes that mediate the antiviral, the antigrowth, and immune surveillance effects of interferons and other cytokines. In addition to regulating gene expression, we report that STAT1-/- mice display increased(More)
Portal venous transfusions (PVTs) of blood have been shown to induce significant immunosuppression in animal models of organ transplantation. A proposed mechanism of PVT-induced immunosuppression is via alteration of Kupffer cell arachidonic acid metabolism with increased secretion of the suppressive metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). This study assessed(More)