Magdalena Hagn

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B cells are central to the humoral immune response as they secrete high-affinity antibodies targeting invading microbial agents. B-cell activation is triggered by the crosslinking of the B-cell receptor (BCR) by specific antigens, which can then be processed and presented to T cells in an MHC-restricted manner. The most potent cytokine to induce the(More)
Recently, we reported that IL-21 induces granzyme B (GzmB) and GzmB-dependent apoptosis in malignant CD5(+) B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Several autoimmune diseases (AD) are associated with enhanced frequencies of CD5(+) B cells. Since AD are also associated with elevated IL-21 and GzmB levels, we postulated a link between CD5(+)(More)
Human and mouse granzyme (Gzm)B both induce target cell apoptosis in concert with pore-forming perforin (Pfp); however the mechanisms by which other Gzms induce non-apoptotic death remain controversial and poorly characterised. We used timelapse microscopy to document, quantitatively and in real time, the death of target cells exposed to primary natural(More)
The pathogenic impact of tumor-infiltrating B cells is unresolved at present, however, some studies suggest that they may have immune regulatory potential. Here, we report that the microenvironment of various solid tumors includes B cells that express granzyme B (GrB, GZMB), where these B cells can be found adjacent to interleukin (IL)-21-secreting(More)
Human B cells are currently not known to produce the proapoptotic protease granzyme B (GrB) in physiological settings. We have discovered that BCR stimulation with either viral Ags or activating Abs in the context of the acute phase cytokine IL-21 can induce the secretion of substantial amounts of GrB by human B cells. Importantly, GrB response to viral Ags(More)
Recently, CD4(+) T helper cells were shown to induce differentiation of human B cells into plasma cells by expressing interleukin (IL-)21 and CD40 ligand (CD40L). In the present study we show, that in the absence of CD40L, CD4(+) T cell-derived IL-21 induces differentiation of B cells into granzyme B (GzmB)-secreting cytotoxic cells. Using(More)
Recently, it has been reported that human B cells express and secrete the cytotoxic protease granzyme B (GrB) after stimulation with IL-21 and BCR cross-linking. To date, there are few clues on the function of GrB in B cell biology. As experimental transgenic murine systems should provide insights into these issues, we assayed for GrB in C57BL/6 B cells(More)
Granzyme B (GzmB) is a serine protease best known for inducing target cell apoptosis when released by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or natural killer cells with pore-forming perforin. As a result, GzmB detected in the serum of virus-infected individuals has typically been attributed to these sources. Here, we show that patients with recently diagnosed(More)
CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) and IL-21 are two promising agents for the treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Recently, we reported that the combination of CpG and IL-21 (CpG/IL-21) can induce granzyme B (GrB)-dependent apoptosis in B-CLL cells. Here, we demonstrate that treatment of B-CLL cells with CpG and IL-21 results in the(More)
Cytotoxic lymphocytes destroy pathogen-infected and transformed cells through the cytotoxic granule exocytosis death pathway, which is dependent on the delivery of proapoptotic granzymes into the target cell cytosol by the pore-forming protein, perforin. Despite the importance of mouse models in understanding the role of cytotoxic lymphocytes in(More)