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Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is an endogenous metabolite normally formed in the mitochondria from succinyl-CoA and glycine. Conjugation of eight ALA molecules yields protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and finally leads to formation of heme. Conversion of PpIX to its downstream substrates requires the activity of a rate-limiting enzyme ferrochelatase. When ALA is(More)
Thioredoxins (Trx) together with thioredoxin reductases (TrxR) participate in the maintenance of protein thiol homeostasis and play cytoprotective roles in tumor cells. Therefore, thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system is considered to be a promising therapeutic target in cancer treatment. We have previously reported that SK053, a peptidomimetic compound(More)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumours is based on administration of a photosensitiser followed by irradiation of the tumour with visible light leading to production of reactive oxygen species that cause direct tumour cell death and vascular damage. PDT also initiates acute local inflammation, which facilitates the development of adaptive antitumour(More)
Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident chaperone and a major regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Accumulating evidence indicate that GRP78 is overexpressed in many cancer cell lines, and contributes to the invasion and metastasis in many human tumors. Besides, GRP78 upregulation is detected in response(More)
Vemurafenib (PLX4032), an inhibitor of BRAF(V600E), has demonstrated significant clinical anti-melanoma effects. However, the majority of treated patients develop resistance, due to a variety of molecular mechanisms including MAPK reactivation through MEK. The induction of a cancer cell death modality associated with danger-signalling resulting in surface(More)
BACKGROUND Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been shown to induce ablation and functional occlusion of tumor-associated lymphatic vessels. However, direct effects of PDT on lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) have not been studied so far. The aim of this study was to elucidate molecular mechanisms of cell death induced by PDT in human LECs. METHODS(More)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive therapeutic modality used in the treatment of several types of solid tumors including skin, bladder, esophagus as well as head and neck cancers. 1 The treatment consists of administration of a photosensitizer (PS) followed by irradiation of the lesion with visible light typically delivered by thin(More)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been shown to destroy tumour-associated lymphatic vessels. Therefore, we sought to investigate the functional outcomes of PDT-mediated damage to the lymphatic vessels. We observed that PDT with verteporfin, completely but transiently, blocks the functional lymphatic drainage in the orthotopic mammary tumour models. Sustained(More)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) exerts direct cytotoxic effects on tumor cells, destroys tumor blood and lymphatic vessels and induces local inflammation. Although PDT triggers the release of immunogenic antigens from tumor cells, the degree of immune stimulation is regimen-dependent. The highest immunogenicity is achieved at sub-lethal doses, which at the same(More)
Gene transfer into normal quiescent human B cells is a challenging procedure. The present study aimed to investigate whether it is possible to increase the levels of transgene expression by using various types of promoters to drive the expression of selected genes‑of‑interest. To produce lentiviral particles, the present study used the 2nd generation psPAX2(More)
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