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Sleep can reduce the testing effect: it enhances recall of restudied items but can leave recall of retrieved items unaffected.
TLDR
The findings are consistent with the bifurcation model of the testing effect, according to which the distribution of memory strengths across items is shifted differentially by retrieving and restudying, with retrieval strengthening items to a much higher degree than restudy does.
Sleep can eliminate list-method directed forgetting.
TLDR
This work examined whether sleep influences directed forgetting, the finding that people can intentionally forget obsolete memories when cued to do so, by applying the list-method directed forgetting task.
Sleep Reduces the Testing Effect—But Not After Corrective Feedback and Prolonged Retention Interval
TLDR
Both corrective feedback and prolonged retention intervals reduce the modulating role of sleep for the testing effect as it can be observed after 12-h delays and in the absence of corrective feedback, which suggests a fairly limited influence of sleep on the effect.
Retrieval-induced forgetting, delay, and sleep
TLDR
Results show that whether delay eliminates RIF or not can depend on whether sleep or wake follows retrieval practice, and connections to recent findings about the role of delay and sleep for RIF are discussed.
Comparing the testing effect under blocked and mixed practice: The mnemonic benefits of retrieval practice are not affected by practice format
TLDR
The conclusion that testing effects are robust and emerge to equal extents in both blocked and mixed designs is supported and the generality of testing effects further encourages the application of retrieval practice as a memory enhancer in a variety of contexts, including education.
The roles of delay and retroactive interference in retrieval-induced forgetting
TLDR
The results are consistent with the results from recent testing-effect studies, which have reported reduced delay-induced forgetting and reduced susceptibility to interference for retrieval-practiced items, and generalize the results to related unpracticed items.
Sleep can reduce proactive interference
TLDR
Sleep reduced proactive interference, and reduced retroactive and proactive interference to the same extent, which is consistent with the view that arising benefits of sleep are caused by the reactivation of memory contents during sleep, which has been suggested to strengthen and stabilise memories.
Competing national memories of World War II
TLDR
This study points to sharp differences in national memory even across nations who fought on the same side in the war, showing people are highly ethnocentric in viewing their own nation’s influence, even in remembering the (nominally) same event: World War II.
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