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BACKGROUND Excessive daytime sleepiness is a frequent complaint in Parkinson's disease (PD); however the frequency and risk factors for objective sleepiness remain mostly unknown. We investigated both the frequency and determinants of self-reported and objective daytime sleepiness in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) using a wide range of potential(More)
The forced voice corresponds with increased peri-laryngeal tension during phonation caused by inappropriate muscle action. It is usually accompanied by a characteristic posture (the face thrust forwards, tension in the neck muscles etc...). This posture may cause dysfunction of the cords themselves, leading to dysphonia, and perhaps requiring laryngeal(More)
The apprenticeship for classical singing requires years of training due to its complexity. This training is directed at the different levels of the vocal apparatus: the source of energy or air flow (lungs), the vibrator (vocal cords) and the resonators (bucco-pharyngeal cavity). For this study we have concentrated on the first level, that is, respiration.(More)
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