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Tumor growth promotes the expansion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (T reg) cells that counteract T cell-mediated immune responses. An inverse correlation between natural killer (NK) cell activation and T reg cell expansion in tumor-bearing patients, shown here, prompted us to address the role of T reg cells in controlling innate antitumor immunity. Our(More)
The immune system regulates angiogenesis in cancer with both pro- and antiangiogenic activities. The induction of angiogenesis is mediated by tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) which produce proinflammatory cytokines, endothelial growth factors (VEGF, bFGF…), and protease (MMP9) implicated in neoangiogenesis. Some(More)
Multitarget antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have been shown to reduce regulatory T cells (Treg) in tumor-bearing animals and patients with metastatic renal carcinomas. However, a direct role of the VEGF-A/VEGFR pathway inhibition in this phenomenon is a matter of debate and molecular mechanisms leading to Treg modulation in this setting have(More)
Strong evidence supports the concept of immunosurveillance and immunoediting in colorectal cancer. In particular, the density of T CD8⁺ and CD45⁺ lymphocyte infiltration was recently shown to have a better prognostic value than the classic tumor node metastasis classification factor. Other immune subsets, as macrophages, natural killer cells or(More)
In the last decades a new class of therapeutic drugs have been developed that block tumor angiogenesis. These antiangiogenic molecules, which target VEGF or VEGFR, PDGFR, and c-kit, can act not only on endothelial cells but also on immune cells. Some antiangiogenic molecules inhibit the development of immunosuppressive mechanisms developed by the tumors to(More)
Immune escape is a prerequisite for tumor development. To avoid the immune system, tumors develop different mechanisms, including T cell exhaustion, which is characterized by expression of immune inhibitory receptors, such as PD-1, CTLA-4, Tim-3, and a progressive loss of function. The recent development of therapies targeting PD-1 and CTLA-4 have raised(More)
Neoangiogenesis is the pathophysiological process whereby tumors stimulate the formation of novel blood vessels to support their growth and metastatic dissemination. The production of pro-angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by malignant cells robustly contributes to neoangiogenesis. In line with this notion, targeting(More)
The interferon (IFN)-gamma-induced TRAIL effector mechanism is a vital component of cancer immunosurveillance by natural killer (NK) cells in mice. Here we show that the main source of IFN-gamma is not the conventional NK cell but a subset of B220(+)Ly6C(-) dendritic cells, which are atypical insofar as they express NK cell-surface molecules. Upon contact(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells influence innate and adaptive immune host defenses. Existing data indicate that manipulating the balance between inhibitory and activating NK receptor signals, the sensitivity of target cells to NK cell-mediated apoptosis, and NK cell cross-talk with dendritic cells might hold therapeutic promise. Efforts to modulate NK cell(More)
Mutant isoforms of the KIT or PDGF receptors expressed by gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are considered the therapeutic targets for STI571 (imatinib mesylate; Gleevec), a specific inhibitor of these tyrosine kinase receptors. Case reports of clinical efficacy of Gleevec in GISTs lacking the typical receptor mutations prompted a search for an(More)