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Tumor growth promotes the expansion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (T reg) cells that counteract T cell-mediated immune responses. An inverse correlation between natural killer (NK) cell activation and T reg cell expansion in tumor-bearing patients, shown here, prompted us to address the role of T reg cells in controlling innate antitumor immunity. Our(More)
Multitarget antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have been shown to reduce regulatory T cells (Treg) in tumor-bearing animals and patients with metastatic renal carcinomas. However, a direct role of the VEGF-A/VEGFR pathway inhibition in this phenomenon is a matter of debate and molecular mechanisms leading to Treg modulation in this setting have(More)
The progressive conversion of normal cells into cancer cells is characterized by the acquisition of eight hallmarks. Among these criteria, the capability of the cancer cell to avoid the immune destruction has been noted. Thus, tumors develop mechanisms to become invisible to the immune system, such as the induction of immunosuppressive cells, which are able(More)
Dendritic cell (DC) derived-exosomes (Dex) are nanomeric vesicles harboring functional MHC/peptide complexes promoting T cell-dependent tumor rejection. In the first Phase I trial using peptide-pulsed Dex, the observation of clinical regressions in the absence of T cell responses prompted the search for alternate effector mechanisms. Mouse studies unraveled(More)
Many cancer cells express Toll-like receptors (TLR) that offer possible therapeutic targets. Polyadenylic-polyuridylic acid [poly(A:U)] is an agonist of the Toll-like receptor TLR3 that displays anticancer properties. In this study, we illustrate how the immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive effects of this agent can be uncoupled to therapeutic advantage.(More)
Given the broad expression of H-2 class Ib molecules on hematopoietic cells, antigen presentation pathways among CD1d expressing cells might tightly regulate CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) and not adherent splenocytes become capable of triggering NK1.1(+)/T cell receptor (TCR)(int) hepatic NKT cell(More)
CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Treg) have emerged as a dominant T cell population inhibiting anti-tumor effector T cells. Initial strategies used for Treg-depletion (cyclophospha-mide, anti-CD25 mAb…) also targeted activated T cells, as they share many phenotypic markers. Current, ameliorated approaches to inhibit Treg aim to either block their(More)
The CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in the control of peripheral tolerance by directly inhibiting conventional T cell proliferative and effector functions. However, the mechanisms by which Treg regulate the homeostasis of lymph nodes remain unclear. In this study, we show in a mouse model that Treg control two major(More)
Immune escape is a prerequisite for tumor development. To avoid the immune system, tumors develop different mechanisms, including T cell exhaustion, which is characterized by expression of immune inhibitory receptors, such as PD-1, CTLA-4, Tim-3, and a progressive loss of function. The recent development of therapies targeting PD-1 and CTLA-4 have raised(More)
In the last decades a new class of therapeutic drugs have been developed that block tumor angiogenesis. These antiangiogenic molecules, which target VEGF or VEGFR, PDGFR, and c-kit, can act not only on endothelial cells but also on immune cells. Some antiangiogenic molecules inhibit the development of immunosuppressive mechanisms developed by the tumors to(More)