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The World Health Organization estimates that lower respiratory tract infections (excluding tuberculosis) account for approximately 35% of all deaths caused by infectious diseases. In many cases, the cause of death may be caused by multiple pathogens, e.g., the life-threatening bacterial pneumonia observed in patients infected with influenza virus. The(More)
IkappaB Kinase (IKK)alpha is required for activation of an alternative NF-kappaB signaling pathway based on processing of the NF-kappaB2/p100 precursor protein, which associates with RelB in the cytoplasm. This pathway, which activates RelB:p52 dimers, is required for induction of several chemokine genes needed for organization of secondary lymphoid organs.(More)
The nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway plays a central role in inflammation and immunity. In response to proinflammatory cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, NF-kappaB activation is controlled by IkappaB kinase (IKK)beta. Using Cre/lox-mediated gene targeting of IKKbeta, we have uncovered a tissue-specific role for IKKbeta during(More)
Inflammation and innate immunity involve signalling pathways leading to the production of inflammatory mediators. Usually such responses are self-limiting, but aberrant resolution of inflammation results in chronic diseases. Much attention has focused on pro-inflammatory signalling but little is known about the mechanisms that resolve inflammation. The(More)
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in human newborns and immune-compromised adults. The pore-forming toxin (PFT) β hemolysin/cytolysin (βh/c) is a major virulence factor for GBS, which is generally attributed to its cytolytic functions. Here we show βh/c has immunomodulatory properties on macrophages at sub-lytic(More)
CD163 is the macrophage receptor for uptake of hemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes. The human receptor can be shed from the macrophage surface owing to a cleavage site for the inflammation-inducible TACE/ADAM17 enzyme. Accordingly, plasma 'soluble CD163' (sCD163) has become a biomarker for macrophage activity and inflammation. The present study disclosed that(More)
Inflammation is a beneficial response to insult or injury which plays an important role in orchestrating the adaptive immune response. The resolution of acute inflammation is an active process that involves the release of anti-inflammatory mediators and the termination of pro-inflammatory signalling pathways coincident with leucocyte apoptosis and(More)