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The nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway plays a central role in inflammation and immunity. In response to proinflammatory cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, NF-kappaB activation is controlled by IkappaB kinase (IKK)beta. Using Cre/lox-mediated gene targeting of IKKbeta, we have uncovered a tissue-specific role for IKKbeta during(More)
Inflammation and innate immunity involve signalling pathways leading to the production of inflammatory mediators. Usually such responses are self-limiting, but aberrant resolution of inflammation results in chronic diseases. Much attention has focused on pro-inflammatory signalling but little is known about the mechanisms that resolve inflammation. The(More)
The World Health Organization estimates that lower respiratory tract infections (excluding tuberculosis) account for approximately 35% of all deaths caused by infectious diseases. In many cases, the cause of death may be caused by multiple pathogens, e.g., the life-threatening bacterial pneumonia observed in patients infected with influenza virus. The(More)
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in human newborns and immune-compromised adults. The pore-forming toxin (PFT) β hemolysin/cytolysin (βh/c) is a major virulence factor for GBS, which is generally attributed to its cytolytic functions. Here we show βh/c has immunomodulatory properties on macrophages at sub-lytic(More)
CD163 is the macrophage receptor for uptake of hemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes. The human receptor can be shed from the macrophage surface owing to a cleavage site for the inflammation-inducible TACE/ADAM17 enzyme. Accordingly, plasma 'soluble CD163' (sCD163) has become a biomarker for macrophage activity and inflammation. The present study disclosed that(More)
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