• Publications
  • Influence
Development of a Framework to Estimate the Cost of Opioid Dependence.
Opioid dependence imposes a range of costs on individuals, families, communities and society, and understanding these costs is important to inform policy and decision making in this area, especiallyExpand
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  • Open Access
Regulating Cannabis Social Clubs: A comparative analysis of legal and self-regulatory practices in Spain, Belgium and Uruguay.
BACKGROUND Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) are a model of non-profit production and distribution of cannabis among a closed circuit of adult cannabis users. CSCs are now operating in several countriesExpand
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  • Open Access
The Belgian Cannabis Social Club landscape
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to map the presence of the Cannabis Social Club (CSC) model in Belgium since its emergence in the country and to analyze the inter-organizationalExpand
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Strategies for a risky business: How drug dealers manage customers, suppliers and competitors in Italy, Slovenia and Germany.
BACKGROUND A growing body of literature aims to improve understanding of the operations of drug trafficking markets through conducting interviews with dealers and traffickers. Insight into how theseExpand
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An analysis of media framing of and by Cannabis Social Clubs in Belgium: making the news?
Abstract Aims: Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) are non-profit organizations that supply cannabis among their adult members. The goal of this paper is twofold: (1) to understand how Belgian CSCs haveExpand
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"The difference is in the tomato at the end": Understanding the motivations and practices of cannabis growers operating within Belgian Cannabis Social Clubs.
  • Mafalda Pardal
  • Medicine
  • The International journal on drug policy
  • 1 June 2018
BACKGROUND In Belgium, Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) collectively organize the cultivation and distribution of cannabis for the personal use of their members. In this paper we seek to improveExpand
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  • Open Access
Modeling the structure and operation of drug supply chains: The case of cocaine and heroin in Italy and Slovenia.
Multiple layers of dealers connect international drug traffickers to users. The fundamental activity of these dealers is buying from higher-level dealers and re-selling in smaller quantities at theExpand
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  • Open Access
Antimicrobial Stewardship: The Effectiveness of Educational Interventions to Change Risk-Related Behaviours in the General Population: A Systematic Review.
RAND Europe undertook a systematic review of the evidence of effectiveness and cost effectiveness on changing the public's risk related behaviour pertaining to antimicrobial use to inform theExpand
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  • Open Access
Uruguayan Cannabis Social Clubs: From activism to dispensaries?
BACKGROUND In 2013 Uruguay regulated three models for the supply of cannabis for recreational use (Law 19.172), including Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs). According to the Cannabis Regulation andExpand
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Cannabis Use and Supply Patterns Among Belgian Cannabis Social Club Members
Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) constitute a noncommercial model for the supply of cannabis among registered, adults users, which is present in several countries—including in Belgium. This analysisExpand
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