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Osteoporotic fractures are a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. Previous estimates of the economic burden of osteoporosis, however, have not fully accounted for the costs associated with treatment of nonhip fractures, minority populations, or men. Accordingly, the 1995 total direct medical expenditures for(More)
BACKGROUND Adhesion formation represents a major complication after lower abdominal operations. It is postulated that a shift in surgical practice in recent years toward the use of less invasive techniques, such as laparoscopy, may be associated with a reduction in the incidence of intraperitoneal adhesions and in the rate of adhesiolysis procedures. Using(More)
BACKGROUND There have been no recent assessments of the economic burden of sinusitis in the peer-reviewed literature. OBJECTIVE We sought to estimate the 1996 total direct health care expenditures for the treatment of sinusitis. METHODS This study determined (1) direct expenditures of medical and surgical encounters in which sinusitis was the primary(More)
To assess the cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent osteoporosis, it is necessary to estimate total health care expenditures for the treatment of osteoporotic fractures. Resources utilized for the treatment of many diseases can be estimated from secondary databases using relevant diagnosis codes, but such codes do not indicate which fractures are(More)
BACKGROUND Previous estimates of the national economic burden of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/AC) have relied on data analyses in which AR/AC was the primary International Classification of Diseases-ninth revision-Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM)-coded diagnosis. These studies ignore the costs when AR/AC was a secondary diagnosis to other disorders such(More)
PURPOSE We sought to determine the prevalence of psychiatric illness in hospitalized patients with end-stage renal disease. We also examined the association between end-stage renal disease treatment modality and risk of hospitalization with a diagnosis of a mental disorder, and compared rates of hospitalization with a diagnosis of psychiatric illness in(More)
BACKGROUND Anemia is a frequent complication of end-stage renal disease. Poor responsiveness to epoetin therapy hampers the management of anemia. Escalating epoetin doses often are used to overcome epoetin resistance. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between epoetin dose requirements and mortality. METHODS Using United States(More)
PURPOSE In 1987, Jamaica initiated a comprehensive island-wide salt fluoridation program. A survey was conducted in 1995 to monitor the impact of salt fluoridation among children in Jamaica. METHODS Dental examinations of 1,120 children aged 6-8, 12, and 15 years were conducted according to World Health Organization criteria to assess dental caries,(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To explicate the interrelationship between asthma hospitalization and race/ethnicity and income. DESIGN Small area ecologic analysis using census and administrative data. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS All asthma hospitalizations in California were identified using the 1993 California Hospital Discharge file. Small area analyses of Los(More)
CONTEXT Epoetin therapy for dialysis-related anemia is the single largest Medicare drug expenditure. The type of facility (profit, chain, and affiliation status) at which a patient receives dialysis might affect epoetin dosing patterns and has implications for future epoetin policies. OBJECTIVE To examine the association between dialysis facility(More)