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Numerous plant-derived compounds have been evaluated for inhibitory effects against HIV replication, and some coumarins have been found to inhibit different stages in the HIV replication cycle. This review article describes recent progress in the discovery, structure modification, and structure-activity relationship studies of potent anti-HIV coumarin(More)
The regulatory mechanism of sarcomeric activity has not been fully clarified yet because of its complex and cooperative nature, which involves both Ca(2+) and cross-bridge binding to the thin filament. To reveal the mechanism of regulation mediated by the cross-bridges, separately from the effect of Ca(2+), we investigated the force-sarcomere length (SL)(More)
The role of tropomyosin (Tm) in the elementary steps of the cross-bridge cycle in bovine myocardium was investigated. The thin filament was selectively removed using gelsolin (thin filament severing protein), and the actin filament was reconstituted from G-actin. Tm was further reconstituted without troponin (Tn), and the kinetic constants of the elementary(More)
We report here the technique for detection and measurement of the temperature changes in single cells using a recently devised microthermometer (a glass micropipette filled with the thermosensitive fluorescent dye Europium (III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate trihydrate). We found that the heat production in a single HeLa cell occurred with some time delay after(More)
The force generation and motion of muscle are produced by the collective work of thousands of sarcomeres, the basic structural units of striated muscle. Based on their series connection to form a myofibril, it is expected that sarcomeres are mechanically and/or structurally coupled to each other. However, the behavior of individual sarcomeres and the(More)
To bridge the gap between the contractile system in muscle and in vitro motility assay, we have devised an A-band motility assay system. A glycerinated skeletal myofibril was treated with gelsolin to selectively remove the thin filaments and expose a single A-band. A single bead-tailed actin filament trapped by optical tweezers was made to interact with the(More)
The length-dependent activation of skeletal myofibrils was examined at the single-sarcomere level with phase-contrast microscopy at sarcomere length (SL) >2.2 microm. At the maximal activation by Ca(2+) (pCa 4.5) the active force linearly decreased with increasing SL, while at partial activation by Ca(2+) (pCa 6.1-6.5) the larger active force was generated(More)
We developed a neural network model for studying neural mechanisms underlying complex syntactical songs of the Bengalese finch, which result from interactions between sensori-motor nuclei, the nucleus HVC (HVC) and the nucleus interfacialis (NIf). Results of simulations are tested by comparison with the song development of real young birds learning the same(More)
OBJECTIVES Neurovascular compression (NVC) of the trigeminal nerve is the primary cause of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) but is known to occur in both symptomatic and asymptomatic nerves. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the relationship between the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings regarding the site of NVC and the manifestation of TN(More)
The organization of biomotile systems possesses structural and functional hierarchy, building up from single molecules via protein assemblies and cells further up to an organ. A typical example is the hierarchy of cardiac muscle, on the top of which is the heart. The heartbeat is supported by the rhythmic contraction of the muscle cells that is controlled(More)