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BACKGROUND Pulmonary rehabilitation has become a cornerstone in the management of patients with stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Systematic reviews have shown large and important clinical effects of pulmonary rehabilitation in these patients. In unstable COPD patients who have suffered from an exacerbation recently, however, the effects(More)
BACKGROUND Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represent a major burden for patients and health care systems. Respiratory rehabilitation may improve prognosis in these patients by addressing relevant risk factors for exacerbations such as low exercise capacity. To study whether respiratory rehabilitation after acute(More)
BACKGROUND Physical exercise is an important component of respiratory rehabilitation because it reverses skeletal muscle dysfunction, a clinically important manifestation of COPD associated with reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL) and survival. However, there is controversy regarding the components of the optimal exercise protocol. A study was(More)
The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism has received much attention in pharmacogenetic research because observed variations in response to ACE inhibitors might be associated with this polymorphism. Pharmacogenetic testing raises the hope to individualise ACE inhibitor therapy in order to optimise its effectiveness and(More)
BACKGROUND Pharmacogenetic testing to individualize ACE inhibitor therapy remains controversial. We conducted a systematic review to assess the effect modification of the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene on any outcome in patients treated with ACE inhibitors for cardiovascular and/or renal disease. METHODS Our systematic review(More)
This article provides a general introduction into the field of pharmacogenetics and discusses its opportunities and limits. Pharmacogenetic research explores genetic variability between patients to explain observed differences in effectiveness of a drug therapy or adverse event profiles. Sometimes drug therapy is unfavourable: Patients may respond only(More)
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