Madiha Salah Ibrahim

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus subtype H5N1 is currently widespread in Asia, Europe, and Africa, with 60% mortality in humans. In particular, since 2009 Egypt has unexpectedly had the highest number of human cases of H5N1 virus infection, with more than 50% of the cases worldwide, but the basis for this high incidence has not been elucidated. A(More)
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the recently emerged Asian H5N1 virus (A/crow/Kyoto/53/2004) were generated. From five anti-hemagglutinin (HA) MAbs, four antibodies (3C11, 4C12, 3H12, and 3H4) broadly in vitro recognized and neutralized H5 subtypes, including H5N1. By contrast, the 4G6 MAb specifically reacted with H5N1-HA and not with H5N2- or(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus subtype H5N1 has been endemic in some bird species since its emergence in 1996 and its ecology, genetics and antigenic properties have continued to evolve. This has allowed diverse virus strains to emerge in endemic areas with altered receptor specificity, including a new H5 sublineage with enhanced binding affinity(More)
In this study, we show that the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) (A/crow/Kyoto/53/04 and A/chicken/Egypt/CL6/07) induced apoptosis in duck embryonic fibroblasts (DEF). In contrast, apoptosis was reduced among cells infected with low-pathogenic AIVs (A/duck/HK/342/78 [H5N2], A/duck/HK/820/80 [H5N3], A/wigeon/Osaka/1/01 [H7N7], and(More)
Avian influenza viruses impose serious public health burdens with significant mortality and morbidity not only in poultry but also in humans. While poultry susceptibility to avian influenza virus infection is well characterized, pigeons have been thought to have low susceptibility to these viruses. However, recent studies reported natural pigeon infections(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 has spread across Eurasia and Africa, and outbreaks are now endemic in several countries, including Indonesia, Vietnam and Egypt. Continuous circulation of H5N1 virus in Egypt, from a single infected source, has led to significant genetic diversification with phylogenetically separable sublineages, providing an(More)
Health questionnaires and parasitologic examinations of urine and stool were performed upon a stratified random sample of 7,710 individuals from 1,109 households in 21 rural communities in Fayoum Governorate, Egypt in 1992 to investigate the prevalence of, risk factors for, and changing pattern of, infection with Schistosoma sp. in the governorate. A(More)
The epitope sequences within the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A virus H3N2 at amino acid residues 173-181 and 227-239 that forms anti-parallel beta-sheet structure are similarly recognized by human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs), B-1 and D-1 that we recently obtained using the peripheral blood lymphocytes from two influenza-vaccinated volunteers. Both(More)
Hemagglutinin protein (HA) was considered to be the primary target for monoclonal antibody production. This protein not only plays an important role in viral infections, but can also be used to differentiate H5N1 virus from other influenza A viruses. Hence, for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, it is important to develop anti-HA monoclonal antibody(More)