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Failure to establish an appropriate balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses is believed to contribute to pathogenesis of severe malaria. To determine whether this balance is maintained by classical regulatory T cells (CD4(+) FOXP3(+) CD127(-/low); Tregs) we compared cellular responses between Gambian children (n = 124) with severe(More)
Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is an essential enzyme induced by heme and multiple stimuli associated with critical illness. In humans, polymorphisms in the HMOX1 gene promoter may influence the magnitude of HO-1 expression. In many diseases including murine malaria, HO-1 induction produces protective anti-inflammatory effects, but observations from patients(More)
Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) signaling may contribute to pathological activation of the vascular endothelium during severe malaria infection. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) regulates endothelial NO synthesis by maintaining homeostasis between asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, and arginine, the(More)
It is not known why people are more susceptible to bacterial infections such as nontyphoid Salmonella during and after a malaria infection, but in mice, malarial hemolysis impairs resistance to nontyphoid Salmonella by impairing the neutrophil oxidative burst. This acquired neutrophil dysfunction is a consequence of induction of the cytoprotective,(More)
Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite that causes human malaria. This parasitic infection accounts for approximately 655,000 deaths each year worldwide. Most deaths could be prevented by diagnosing and treating malaria promptly. To date, few parasite proteins have been developed into rapid diagnostic tools. We have combined a shotgun and a targeted(More)
In addition to naturally occurring regulatory T (nTreg) cells derived from the thymus, functionally competent Treg cells can be induced in vitro from peripheral blood lymphocytes in response to TCR stimulation with cytokine costimulation. Using these artificial stimulation conditions, both naïve as well as memory CD4(+) T cells can be converted into(More)
BACKGROUND Placental Plasmodium falciparum malaria can trigger intervillositis, a local inflammatory response more strongly associated with low birthweight than placental malaria infection alone. Fetal growth (and therefore birthweight) is dependent on placental amino acid transport, which is impaired in placental malaria-associated intervillositis. Here,(More)
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