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Hypometabolic state following hypothermia is known to protect tissues from ischemic injury. Hypothyroidism produces a hypometabolic state. The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of hypothyroidism following cerebral ischemia and to ascertain the underlying mechanism. Euthyroid (E) and hypothyroid (H) animals were exposed to a(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral regimens with simplified dosing and better safety are needed to maximize the efficiency of antiretroviral delivery in resource-limited settings. We investigated the efficacy and safety of antiretroviral regimens with once-daily compared to twice-daily dosing in diverse areas of the world. METHODS AND FINDINGS 1,571 HIV-1-infected(More)
The role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of arterial stroke is well documented but not in venous stroke. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). For inducing CVST in Sprague-Dawley rats, a cranial window was made to expose the superior sagittal sinus(More)
BACKGROUND Among the naturally occurring compounds, turmeric from the dried rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa has long been used extensively as a condiment and a household remedy all over Southeast Asia. Turmeric contains essential oil, yellow pigments (curcuminoids), starch and oleoresin. The present study was designed for investigating the(More)
Turmeric is a source of numerous aromatic compounds isolated from powdered rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn. The constituents are present as volatile oil, the Curcuma oil (C.oil), semi-solid oleoresins and non-volatile compounds such as curcumin. A rapidly expanding body of data provides evidence of the anti-cancer action of Curcumin, and most importantly in(More)
Global ischemia was induced in gerbil by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries for 5 min. Sodium ionophore monensin or sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) was administered at doses of 10 micorg/kg, i.p., 30 min before ischemia induction; the dose was repeated after 22 hr. Subsequently, brain infarct occurred, determined at 24 hr after(More)
CONTEXT The long-term adverse effects, expense, and difficulty of adherence to antiretroviral regimens have led to studies of simpler maintenance therapies. Maintenance therapy with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir alone is a possible option because of low pill burden, once-daily dosing, safety, and unique resistance profile. OBJECTIVE To assess whether(More)
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an active ingredient of turmeric, obtained from the powdered rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn., has been traditionally recognized for treatment of several diseases. To evaluate the potential clinical use of curcumin, we determined the dose dependence of its effects in the therapeutic window and of the neuroprotective efficacy in(More)
The inability of HIV-1-specific CTL to fully suppress virus replication as well as the failure of administration of exogenous CTL to lower viral loads are not understood. To evaluate the hypothesis that these phenomena are due to a failure of CTL to localize at sites of HIV-1 replication, we assessed the distribution of HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1-specific CTL(More)
To determine the feasibility of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) studies using cryopreserved cells, we compared lymphocyte proliferation assays (LPA), responder cell frequency (RCF), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production using fresh and cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 53(More)