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Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects carriers of premutation alleles (55-200 CGG repeats) of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. The presence of elevated levels of expanded mRNA found in premutation carriers is believed to be the basis for the pathogenesis in FXTAS, but the exact(More)
In many Caenorhabditis elegans pre-mRNAs, the RNA sequence between the 5' cap and the first 3' splice site is replaced by trans-splicing a short spliced leader (SL) from the Sm snRNP, SL1. C. elegans also utilizes a similar Sm snRNP, SL2, to trans-splice at sites between genes in polycistronic pre-mRNAs from operons. How do SL1 and SL2 snRNPs function in(More)
A premutation (PM) expansion (55-200 CGG) in the fragile X mental retardation gene 1 causes elevated messenger RNA and reduced fragile X mental retardation gene 1 protein. Young PM carriers can develop characteristic physical features and mild cognitive disabilities. In addition, individuals with PM, particularly male carriers, are at high risk to develop(More)
Using a specific radioimmunoassay, serum hydrocortisone values were measured in dogs. Between 9:00 AM and 10:00 AM, the base-line hydrocortisone value for 56 clinically normal dogs ranged from 6.0 to 28.5 ng/ml, with a mean value of 17.8 +/- 1.32 ng/ml (mean +/- SEM). Marked differences due to age, sex, body weight, or breed were not observed in the(More)
Mice subjected to defeat in a social conflict paradigm display an analgesic response that is apparently mediated by endogenous opioids. It is blocked by naloxone and shows full cross-tolerance to and from morphine. The present study investigated the contribution of sources of endogenous opioids outside of the central nervous system, namely the pituitary and(More)
Methionine-enkephalin (met-enk) levels were measured at 09.30-10.30, 16.30-17.30 and 23.30-00.30 h in the anterior hypothalamus-preoptic area (AHPOA), medial basal hypothalamus (MBH), anterior, intermediate and posterior lobe of the pituitary gland of male rats. Met-enk levels in the AHPOA and MBH fluctuated significantly through a 24-hour period; from low(More)
The present study was undertaken to determine if the effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on gonadotropin secretion are mediated through endogenous opioid neurons in the rat. Ovariectomized rats were treated with estradiol-benzoate (EB, day O) and with progesterone (P) at 11:00 h on day 2. At 13:00 h (day 2), these estradiol primed and(More)
The distribution of substance P (SP), gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and Met-enkephalin in the brain and spinal cord of the domestic pig is described for the first time. The levels of SP, GnRH and Met-enkephalin were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in various regions of the brain and spinal cord of the pig. Substance P and Met-enkephalin are(More)
The effect of acute (1 day) or subchronic (25 days) treatment with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive constituent of marihuana, on plasma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), corticosterone, beta-endorphin (beta-end), and splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity of the rat was studied. Groups of animals received subcutaneously,(More)