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Thyroid hormone (T3) is a critical regulator of intestinal epithelial development and homeostasis, but its mechanism of action within the gut is not well understood. We have examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the T3 activation of the enterocyte differentiation marker intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) gene. RT-PCR and Western blotting showed(More)
Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is a small intestinal brush border enzyme that has been shown to function as a gut mucosal defense factor, but its precise mechanism of action remains unclear. We investigated the effects of IAP on specific bacteria and bacterial components to determine its molecular targets. Purulent fluid from a cecal ligation and(More)
Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of related disorders that includes obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver. Recently, gut-derived chronic endotoxemia has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the low-grade inflammation responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome. In the present study we(More)
We have developed a low stringency polymerase chain reaction (LSPCR) to isolate the unknown neighboring region around a known DNA sequence, thus allowing efficient targeted gene walking. The method involves the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a single primer under conditions of low stringency for primer annealing (40 degrees C) for the first few cycles(More)
We have identified four putative human sodium channel gene sequences, 55 bp each, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on total human placental DNA with primers specific for the cDNA sequence of the rat brain sodium channel I alpha (Scn1a) gene. One of these sequences was extended bidirectionally by genomic inverse-PCR to obtain a 1.6-kb fragment.(More)
Two promoter-detection vectors have been constructed which enable the cloning and characterization of promoters recognized by the RNA polymerase of Escherichia coli K-12. The intergenic region of phage M13 DNA, present in opposite orientations in the two vectors, permits the preparation of single-stranded DNA of either strand of the insert thus facilitating(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The intestinal microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining human health; however, the mechanisms governing the normal homeostatic number and composition of these microbes are largely unknown. Previously it was shown that intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a small intestinal brush border enzyme, functions as a gut mucosal defence(More)
High levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), are present in the gut mucosa of patients suffering form various diseases, most notably inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Since the inflammatory milieu can cause important alterations in epithelial cell function, we examined the cytokine(More)
Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is a gut mucosal defense factor known to dephosphorylate lipopolysaccharide (LPS); however, the role of IAP in the gut response to luminal bacteria remains poorly defined. We investigated immune responses of wild-type (WT) and IAP-knockout (IAP-KO) mice to LPS and Salmonella typhimurium challenges. Cryostat sectioning(More)
We have examined the role that the transcription factor gut-enriched Krüppel-like factor (KLF4 or GKLF) plays in activating the enterocyte differentiation marker gene intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP). A yeast one-hybrid screen was used to identify proteins interacting with a previously identified cis-element (IF-III) located within the human IAP gene(More)