Madhavan Narayanan

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An efficient system was established for high frequency embryogenesis and regeneration of indica rice, Oryza sativa L. cv. MDU 5. Basic media, carbohydrate sources and concentrations, agar concentrations, amino acids, cytokinins and auxins were evaluated in callus induction and regeneration media to establish the most efficient regeneration protocol for MDU(More)
The objective of the present study is to determine the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in various organs of the fresh water fish exposed to heavy metal contaminated water system. The experimental fish was exposed to Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb at sublethal concentrations for periods of 32 days. The elements Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr were assayed using Shimadzu AA 6200 atomic(More)
Complex I (NADH:quinone oxidoreductase) is central to cellular aerobic energy metabolism, and its deficiency is involved in many human mitochondrial diseases. Complex I translocates protons across the membrane using electron transfer energy. Semiquinone (SQ) intermediates appearing during catalysis are suggested to be key for the coupling mechanism in(More)
Respiratory complex I has an L-shaped structure formed by the hydrophilic arm responsible for electron transfer and the membrane arm that contains protons pumping machinery. Here, to gain mechanistic insights into the role of subunit NuoL, we investigated the effects of Mg2+, Zn2+ and the Na+/H+ antiporter inhibitor 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride (EIPA)(More)
8-Vinyladenosine (8VA) is an adenosine analog, like 2-aminopurine (2AP), that has a red-shifted absorption and high fluorescence quantum yield. When introduced into double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), its base-pairing and base-stacking properties are similar to those of adenine. Of particular interest, the fluorescence quantum yield of 8VA is sensitive to base(More)
6-Methylisoxanthopterin (6-MI) is a pteridine-based guanine analog that has a red-shifted absorption and high fluorescence quantum yield. Its Watson-Crick base-pairing and base stacking properties are similar to guanine. The fluorescence quantum yield of 6-MI is sensitive to its nearest neighbors and base stacking, making it a very useful real-time probe of(More)
Reduced anionic flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH- ) is the critical cofactor in DNA photolyase (PL) for the repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in UV-damaged DNA. The initial step involves photoinduced electron transfer from *FADH- to the CPD. The adenine (Ade) moiety is nearly stacked with the flavin ring, an unusual conformation compared to(More)
NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) pumps protons across the membrane using downhill redox energy. The Escherichia coli complex I consists of 13 different subunits named NuoA-N coded by the nuo operon. Due to the low abundance of the protein and some difficulty with the genetic manipulation of its large ~15-kb operon, purification of E. coli complex(More)
2-Aminopurine (2AP) is a fluorescent adenine analogue that is useful in part because its substantial fluorescence quantum yield is sensitive to base stacking with native bases in ss- and ds-DNA. However, the degree of quenching is sequence dependent and the mechanism of quenching is still a matter of some debate. Here we show that the most likely quenching(More)
Fluorescent nucleic acid base analogues (FBAs) are used widely as probes of DNA and RNA structure and dynamics. Of increasing utility are the pteridone adenosine analogues (6MAP, DMAP) and pteridine guanosine analogues (3MI, 6MI). These FBAs (collectively referred to as PTERs) are useful, in part, because their fluorescence quantum yields, Phi(f), are(More)