Madeline L. Cole

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A novel beta-lactamase inhibitor has been isolated from Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 and given the name clavulanic acid. Conditions for the cultivation of the organism and detection and isolation of clavulanic acid are described. This compound resembles the nucleus of a penicillin but differs in having no acylamino side chain, having oxygen instead(More)
Sir: A number of important pathogens which are resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins owe their resistance to the production of a fi-lactamase. If this fl-lactamase could be inhibited adequately in vivo it would be expected that infections caused by such organisms could be successfully treated with the penicillins and cephalosporins now already(More)
1. The penicillin acylase of Eschericha coli N.C.I.B. 8743 is a reversible enzyme. Reaction rates for the two directions have been determined. 2. Measurements of the rates of enzymic synthesis of penicillins from 6-aminopenicillanic acid and various carboxylic acids revealed that p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was the best substrate, followed by phenylacetic,(More)
The activity of 9-(4-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethylbut-1-yl)guanine (BRL 39123) against several herpesviruses was compared with that of acyclovir (ACV). In plaque reduction tests with clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and varicella-zoster virus, mean 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50S) (n = number(More)
The screening of soil actinomyces for beta-lactamase inhibitors is described. Using a plate test a number of strains of Streptomyces were found to produce beta-lactamase inhibitory activity designated olivanic acid complex. Factors affecting the production of this complex by Streptomyces olivaceus ATCC 21379 are reported. The complex showed antibacterial(More)
Several penicillin-producing fungi were examined for ability to produce 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) and penicillin acylase. 6-APA was found in corn steep liquor fermentations of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus ochraceous, and three strains of Penicillium sp. 6-APA was not detected in fermentations of Epidermophyton floccosum although(More)
Penicillins can be metabolized to penicilloic acids in man, the extent being dependent on the penicillin structure. In the phenoxy penicillin series, phenoxymethyl penicillin was found to be particularly unstable, but the higher homologues were more stable. In the isoxazolyl series, oxacillin was unstable, and progressive insertion of halogen in the phenyl(More)
1. The action of the penicillin acylase enzyme of Escherichia coli N.C.I.B. 8743 on non-penicillin substrates suggests that the enzyme is an amidohydrolase. 2. The rates of hydrolysis for a small group of penicillins closely parallel those for a corresponding series of N-acylglycines. 3. For a series of E. coli strains, ability to cause rapid hydrolysis of(More)
BRL 17421 is a new semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotic with an unusual spectrum of antibacterial activity. The compound exhibits exceptional stability to a wide range of bacterial beta-lactamases and is active against the majority of Enterobacteriaceae, including strains highly resistant to many of the penicillins and cephalosporins currently available.(More)