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Calcium/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) couples increases in cellular Ca2+ to fundamental responses in excitable cells. CaMKII was identified over 20 years ago by activation dependence on Ca2+/CaM, but recent evidence shows that CaMKII activity is also enhanced by pro-oxidant conditions. Here we show that oxidation of paired(More)
Ca(2+) influx through the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor leads to activation and postsynaptic accumulation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and ultimately to long term potentiation, which is thought to be the physiological correlate of learning and memory. The NMDA receptor also serves as a CaMKII docking site(More)
P-TEFb regulates eukaryotic gene expression at the level of transcription elongation, and is itself controlled by the reversible association of 7SK RNA and an RNA-binding protein HEXIM1 or HEXIM2. In an effort to determine the minimal region of 7SK needed to interact with HEXIM1 in vitro, we found that an oligo comprised of nucleotides 10-48 sufficed. A bid(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) binding to the intracellular C-terminal tail (CTT) of the cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channel (Ca(V)1.2) regulates Ca(2+) entry by recognizing sites that contribute to negative feedback mechanisms for channel closing. CaM associates with Ca(V)1.2 under low resting [Ca(2+)], but is poised to change conformation and position when intracellular(More)
Ca2+ influx through the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor triggers activation and postsynaptic accumulation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). CaMKII, calmodulin, and alpha-actinin directly bind to the short membrane proximal C0 domain of the C-terminal region of the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit. In a negative feedback loop,(More)
The neuronal voltage-dependent sodium channel (Na(v)1.2), essential for generation and propagation of action potentials, is regulated by calmodulin (CaM) binding to the IQ motif in its α subunit. A peptide (Na(v)1.2(IQp), KRKQEEVSAIVIQRAYRRYLLKQKVKK) representing the IQ motif had higher affinity for apo CaM than (Ca(2+))(4)-CaM. Association was mediated(More)
Calmodulin activates the skeletal muscle Ca(2+) release channel RYR1 at nm Ca(2+) concentrations and inhibits the channel at microm Ca(2+) concentrations. Using a deletion mutant of calmodulin, we demonstrate that amino acids 2-8 are required for high affinity binding of calmodulin to RYR1 at both nm and microm Ca(2+) concentrations and are required for(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) regulates tetrameric N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) by binding tightly to the C0 and C1 regions of its NR1 subunit. A crystal structure (2HQW; 1.96 A) of calcium-saturated CaM bound to NR1C1 (peptide spanning 875-898) showed that NR1 S890, whose phosphorylation regulates membrane localization, was solvent protected, whereas the(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) is the major Ca2+ sensor in eukaryotic cells. It consists of four EF-hand Ca2+ binding motifs, two in its N-terminal domain and two in its C-terminal domain. Through a negative feedback loop, CaM inhibits Ca2+ influx through N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors in neurons by binding to the C0 region in the cytosolic tail of the NR1(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) is the primary calcium sensor in eukaryotes. Calcium binds cooperatively to pairs of EF-hand motifs in each domain (N and C). This allows CaM to regulate cellular processes via calcium-dependent interactions with a variety of proteins, including ion channels. One neuronal target is NaV1.2, voltage-dependent sodium channel type II, to which(More)