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The subjective sense of space may result in part from the combined activity of place cells in the hippocampus and grid cells in posterior cortical regions such as the entorhinal cortex and pre- and parasubiculum. In horizontal planar environments, place cells provide focal positional information, whereas grid cells supply odometric (distance measuring)(More)
The study of spatial cognition has provided considerable insight into how animals (including humans) navigate on the horizontal plane. However, the real world is three-dimensional, having a complex topography including both horizontal and vertical features, which presents additional challenges for representation and navigation. The present article reviews(More)
Hippocampal place cells respond heterogeneously to elemental changes of a compound spatial context, suggesting that they form a distributed code of context, whereby context information is shared across a population of neurons. The question arises as to what this distributed code might be useful for. The present study explored two possibilities: one, that it(More)
Inoculation is one of the first and most common experiences of procedural pain in infancy. However, little is known about how needle puncture pain is processed by the central nervous system in children. In this study, we describe for the first time the event-related activity in the infant brain during routine inoculation using electroencephalography.(More)
Newborn human infants display robust pain behaviour and specific cortical activity following noxious skin stimulation, but it is not known whether brain processing of nociceptive information differs in infants and adults. Imaging studies have emphasised the overlap between infant and adult brain connectome architecture, but electrophysiological analysis of(More)
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) have recently provided fundamental new information about how the newborn brain processes innocuous and noxious somatosensory information. However, results derived independently from these two techniques are not entirely consistent, raising questions about the relationship between hemodynamic(More)
This review addresses the fundamental question of how we first experience pain, at the beginning of our lives. The brain is activated by peripheral tissue damaging stimulation from birth, but unlike other sensory systems, the pain system in healthy individuals cannot rely upon prolonged activity-dependent shaping through repeated noxious stimulation.(More)
navigation requires more than the hippocampal spatial signal: It also entails decision-making, goal-directed behaviors, sensory-motor integration , and other cognitive processes (mediated by brain structures such as the striatum, cerebellum, and prefrontal and parietal cortices). Thus, to elucidate the neural basis of real-life navigation in bats (27, 29),(More)
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