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In this paper we investigate a use of haptics for skills training which we call haptic guidance. In the haptic guidance paradigm, the subject is physically guided through the ideal motion by the haptic interface , thus giving the subject a kinesthetic understanding of what is required. Subjects learned a complex 3-D motion under three training conditions(More)
Three experiments examined the effects of interactive visualizations and spatial abilities on a task requiring participants to infer and draw cross sections of a three-dimensional (3D) object. The experiments manipulated whether participants could interactively control a virtual 3D visualization of the object while performing the task, and compared(More)
Imagined spatial transformations of objects (e.g., mental rotation) and the self (e.g., perspective taking) are psychologically dissociable. In mental rotation, the viewer transforms the location or orientation of an object relative to stable egocentric and environmental reference frames. In imagined shifts of perspective, the viewer's egocentric reference(More)
We examined the use of hand gestures while people solved spatial reasoning problem in which they had to infer motion from static diagrams (mental animation problems). In Experiment 1, participants were asked to think aloud while solving mental animation problems. They gestured on more than 90% of problems, and most gestures expressed information about the(More)
We examined whether different types of brain images affect readers' evaluations of scientific reports. Five different brain images were selected from the neuroscience literature: a whole brain, an inflated brain, a cross-sectional brain slice, a glass brain, and a topographic map. First, the images were subjectively rated by 31 nonexperts for qualities(More)
Medical experts routinely need to identify the shapes of anatomical structures, and surgeons report that they depend substantially on touch to help them with this process. In this paper, we discuss possible reasons why touch may be especially important for anatomical shape recognition in surgery, and why in this domain haptic cues may be at least as(More)
A number of educational fields are introducing computer visualizations into their curricula, yet our understanding of the cognitive phenomena underlying learning from these materials is relatively limited. We examined how learners used an interactive 3D computer visualization to comprehend spatial relations in a virtual anatomy-like structure. Our goal was(More)
This paper discusses spatial cognition in the domain of minimally invasive surgery. It draws on studies from this domain to shed light on a range of spatial cognitive processes and to consider individual differences in performance. In relation to modeling, the aim is to identify potential opportunities for characterizing the complex interplay between(More)