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In this paper we investigate a use of haptics for skills training which we call haptic guidance. In the haptic guidance paradigm, the subject is physically guided through the ideal motion by the haptic interface , thus giving the subject a kinesthetic understanding of what is required. Subjects learned a complex 3-D motion under three training conditions(More)
Imagined spatial transformations of objects (e.g., mental rotation) and the self (e.g., perspective taking) are psychologically dissociable. In mental rotation, the viewer transforms the location or orientation of an object relative to stable egocentric and environmental reference frames. In imagined shifts of perspective, the viewer's egocentric reference(More)
Three experiments examined the effects of interactive visualizations and spatial abilities on a task requiring participants to infer and draw cross sections of a three-dimensional (3D) object. The experiments manipulated whether participants could interactively control a virtual 3D visualization of the object while performing the task, and compared(More)
BACKGROUND Previous research showing correlations between spatial ability and surgical skills has used participants in relatively early stages of training. Research in skill acquisition has shown that the role of cognitive abilities can diminish as skills become increasingly automatic. In this study, we explored the role of spatial ability in laparoscopic(More)
In two studies with a total of 324 participants, dentistry students were assessed on psychometric measures of spatial ability, reasoning ability, and on new measures of the ability to infer the appearance of a cross-section of a three-dimensional (3-D) object. We examined how these abilities and skills predict success in dental education programs, and(More)
We examined the use of hand gestures while people solved spatial reasoning problem in which they had to infer motion from static diagrams (mental animation problems). In Experiment 1, participants were asked to think aloud while solving mental animation problems. They gestured on more than 90% of problems, and most gestures expressed information about the(More)
We examined whether different types of brain images affect readers' evaluations of scientific reports. Five different brain images were selected from the neuroscience literature: a whole brain, an inflated brain, a cross-sectional brain slice, a glass brain, and a topographic map. First, the images were subjectively rated by 31 nonexperts for qualities(More)
SUMMARY We examined changes in performance as people learned to use an angled laparoscope, a challenging spatial skill that must be mastered by surgeons who perform minimally invasive techniques. In Experiment 1, novices took tests of spatial and general reasoning ability, and then learned to operate an angled laparoscope, simulated in a virtual(More)
A number of educational fields are introducing computer visualizations into their curricula, yet our understanding of the cognitive phenomena underlying learning from these materials is relatively limited. We examined how learners used an interactive 3D computer visualization to comprehend spatial relations in a virtual anatomy-like structure. Our goal was(More)