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High-pressure high-temperature synchrotron diffraction measurements reveal a maximum on the melting curve of Na in the bcc phase at approximately 31 GPa and 1000 K and a steep decrease in melting temperature in its fcc phase. The results extend the melting curve by an order of magnitude up to 130 GPa. Above 103 GPa, Na crystallizes in a sequence of phases(More)
Developments in continuous and pulsed laser-heating techniques, and finite-element calculations for diamond anvil cell experiments are reported. The methods involve the use of time-resolved (5 ns gated) incandescent light temperature measurements to determine the time dependence of heat fluxes, while near-IR incandescent light temperature measurements allow(More)
High-pressure Raman, infrared, x-ray, and neutron studies show that H2 and H2O mixtures crystallize into the sII clathrate structure with an approximate H2/H2O molar ratio of 1:2. The clathrate cages are multiply occupied, with a cluster of two H2 molecules in the small cage and four in the large cage. Substantial softening and splitting of hydrogen vibrons(More)
Closed electron shell systems, such as hydrogen, nitrogen or group 18 elements, can form weakly bound stoichiometric compounds at high pressures. An understanding of the stability of these van der Waals compounds is lacking, as is information on the nature of their interatomic interactions. We describe the formation of a stable compound in the Xe-H(2)(More)
A piezoelectric material is one that generates a voltage in response to a mechanical strain (and vice versa). The most useful piezoelectric materials display a transition region in their composition phase diagrams, known as a morphotropic phase boundary, where the crystal structure changes abruptly and the electromechanical properties are maximal. As a(More)
Crystalline and amorphous forms of silicon are the principal materials used for solid-state electronics and photovoltaics technologies. Silicon is therefore a well-studied material, although new structures and properties are still being discovered. Compression of bulk silicon, which is tetrahedrally coordinated at atmospheric pressure, results in a(More)
Sodium chloride (NaCl), or rocksalt, is well characterized at ambient pressure. As a result of the large electronegativity difference between Na and Cl atoms, it has highly ionic chemical bonding (with 1:1 stoichiometry dictated by charge balance) and B1-type crystal structure. By combining theoretical predictions and diamond anvil cell experiments, we(More)
In situ high-pressure/low-temperature synchrotron x-ray diffraction and optical Raman spectroscopy were used to examine the structural properties, equation of state, and vibrational dynamics of ice VIII. The x-ray measurements show that the pressure-volume relations remain smooth up to 23 GPa at 80 K. Although there is no evidence for structural changes to(More)
We report novel molecular compound formation from silane-hydrogen mixtures with intermolecular interactions unprecedented for hydrogen-rich solids. A complex H_{2} vibron spectrum with anticorrelated pressure-frequency dependencies and a striking H-D exchange below 10 GPa reveal strong and unusual attractive interactions between SiH_{4} and H_{2} and(More)
Simple molecular solids become unstable at high pressures, typically transforming to dense framework and/or metallic structures. We report formation of an unusual ionic solid NO(+)NO(3)(-) (nitrosonium nitrate) from N(2)O at pressures above 20 GPa and temperatures above 1000 K. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction indicates that the compound crystallizes with a(More)