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RATIONALE Caffeine and nicotine are the main psychoactive ingredients of coffee and tobacco, respectively, with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. OBJECTIVES The aim of the present study was to examine the interaction of caffeine and nicotine in rats trained to discriminate nicotine from saline. METHODS Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats(More)
The ketogenic diet is a valuable therapeutic approach for epilepsy, one in which most clinical experience has been with children. Although the mechanism by which the diet protects against seizures is unknown, there is evidence that it causes effects on intermediary metabolism that influence the dynamics of the major inhibitory and excitatory(More)
RATIONALE Dopamine (DA) agonists decrease prepulse inhibition (PPI) and are widely used in translational models for the sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia. Reductions in PPI induced by DA agonists are routinely reversed by antipsychotics in these translational models. Nevertheless, under conditions of low-baseline PPI, DA agonists may increase(More)
Topiramate [2,3:4, 5-bis-O-(1-methyl-ethylidene-)-beta-D-fructopyranose sulfamate], administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) up to 5 mg/kg, did not influence the threshold for electroconvulsions. In doses of 10-30 mg/kg, topiramate significantly raised the threshold. This novel antiepileptic drug, in subprotective doses, enhanced the protective activity of(More)
Caffeine and nicotine are the main psychoactive ingredients of coffee and tobacco, with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. This study examined the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on 1) rates of acquisition of a nicotine discrimination (0.1 or 0.4 mg/kg, s.c., training doses) and 2) the pharmacological characteristics of the established(More)
Seizures and status epilepticus are among the neurological complications of cocaine overdose in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effectiveness and therapeutic index (separation between anticonvulsive and side effect profiles) of 14 newly approved and potential antiepileptic drugs using a murine model of acute cocaine(More)
Neuroactive steroids demonstrate pharmacological actions that have relevance for a host of neurological and psychiatric disorders. They offer protection against seizures in a range of models and seem to inhibit certain stages of drug dependence in preclinical assessments. The present study was designed to evaluate two endogenous and one synthetic(More)
Targeting mechanisms that result in increased concentrations of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the brain has been considered as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of epilepsy and certain neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, KYNA has been implicated in the effects produced by the high-fat and low-protein/carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) in a report(More)
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are well recognized to cause potent, selective, and long-lasting neuroparalytic actions by blocking cholinergic neurotransmission to muscles and glands. There is evidence that BoNT isoforms can also inhibit neurotransmission in the brain. In this study, we examined whether locally delivered BoNT/A and BoNT/B can attenuate(More)
The ketogenic diet has been in clinical use for over 80 years, primarily for the symptomatic treatment of epilepsy. A recent clinical study has raised the possibility that exposure to the ketogenic diet may confer long-lasting therapeutic benefits for patients with epilepsy. Moreover, there is evidence from uncontrolled clinical trials and studies in animal(More)