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Huntington disease (HD) is a brain disorder characterized by the late onset of motor and cognitive symptoms, even though the neurons in the brain begin to suffer dysfunction and degeneration long before symptoms appear. There is currently no cure. Several molecular and developmental effects of HD have been identified using neural stem cells (NSCs) and(More)
Polyglutamine (polyQ) disorders share many similarities, such as a common mutation type in unrelated human causative genes, neurological character, and certain aspects of pathogenesis, including morphological and physiological neuronal alterations. The similarities in pathogenesis have been confirmed by findings that some experimental in vivo therapy(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3) is a genetic disorder resulting from the expansion of the CAG repeats in the ATXN3 gene. The pathogenesis of SCA3 is based on the toxic function of the mutant ataxin-3 protein, but the exact mechanism of the disease remains elusive. Various types of transgenic mouse models explore different aspects of SCA3 pathogenesis, but a(More)
Mouse models of human diseases are created both to understand the pathogenesis of the disorders and to find successful therapies for them. This work is the second part in a series of reviews of mouse models of polyglutamine (polyQ) hereditary disorders and focuses on in vivo experimental therapeutic approaches. Like part I of the polyQ mouse model review,(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3/MJD) is a neurodegenerative disease triggered by the expansion of CAG repeats in the ATXN3 gene. Here, we report the generation of the first humanized ataxin-3 knock-in mouse model (Ki91), which provides insights into the neuronal and glial pathology of SCA3/MJD. First, mutant ataxin-3 accumulated in cell nuclei across(More)
Huntington disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited disorder caused by a CAG expansion mutation in the huntingtin (HTT) gene, which results in the HTT protein that contains an expanded polyglutamine tract. The adult form of HD exhibits a late onset of the fully symptomatic phase. However, there is also a long presymptomatic phase, which has been increasingly(More)
The polyglutamine (polyQ) family of disorders comprises 9 genetic diseases, including several types of ataxia and Huntington disease. Approximately two decades of investigation and the creation of more than 130 mouse models of polyQ disorders have revealed many similarities between these diseases. The disorders share common mutation types, neurological(More)
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