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In the brain, glutamatergic neurotransmission is terminated predominantly by the rapid uptake of synaptically released glutamate into astrocytes through the Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporters GLT-1 and GLAST and its subsequent conversion into glutamine by the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS). To date, several factors have been identified that rapidly(More)
Steroids that activate glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and mineralocorticoid receptors have important regulatory effects on neural development, plasticity, and the body's stress response. Here, we investigated the role of corticosteroids in regulating the expression of the glial glutamate transporters glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and(More)
The neuronal cell death associated with certain neurodegenerative disorders as well as acute brain injuries is in part due to the reduced expression of glial glutamate transporters and the subsequent accumulation of toxic extracellular glutamate concentrations. Extracellular factors previously found to potently stimulate the expression of the glial(More)
Astrocytes play a crucial role in maintaining glutamate homeostasis in the intact central nervous system. This function is profoundly impaired in the acutely and chronically diseased brain as evidenced by the decreased expression of the glial glutamate transporters, GLT-1/EAAT-2 and/or GLAST/EAAT-1, and a subsequent increase in extracellular glutamate(More)
Huntington disease (HD) is a brain disorder characterized by the late onset of motor and cognitive symptoms, even though the neurons in the brain begin to suffer dysfunction and degeneration long before symptoms appear. There is currently no cure. Several molecular and developmental effects of HD have been identified using neural stem cells (NSCs) and(More)
Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system which at high extracellular levels leads to neuronal over-stimulation and subsequent excitotoxic neuronal cell death. Both the termination of glutamatergic neurotransmission and the prevention of neurotoxic extracellular glutamate concentrations are predominantly(More)
Injuries to the brain result in the decline of glial glutamate transporter expression within hours and a recovery after several days. One consequence of this disturbed expression seems to consist in the temporary accumulation of toxic extracellular glutamate levels followed by secondary neuronal cell death. Whereas evidence exists that the decline in(More)
In the vertebrate CNS, glutamate transport predominantly occurs through the glutamate transporter subtype, GLT-1/EAAT-2, which prevails in astrocytes. GLT-1/EAAT-2 expression is impaired in many acute and chronic brain diseases, leading to increases in extracellular glutamate and subsequent excitotoxic neuronal cell death. An obvious therapeutical approach(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3) is a genetic disorder resulting from the expansion of the CAG repeats in the ATXN3 gene. The pathogenesis of SCA3 is based on the toxic function of the mutant ataxin-3 protein, but the exact mechanism of the disease remains elusive. Various types of transgenic mouse models explore different aspects of SCA3 pathogenesis, but a(More)
Polyglutamine (polyQ) disorders share many similarities, such as a common mutation type in unrelated human causative genes, neurological character, and certain aspects of pathogenesis, including morphological and physiological neuronal alterations. The similarities in pathogenesis have been confirmed by findings that some experimental in vivo therapy(More)