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DNA from bacteria has stimulatory effects on mammalian immune cells, which depend on the presence of unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in the bacterial DNA. In contrast, mammalian DNA has a low frequency of CpG dinucleotides, and these are mostly methylated; therefore, mammalian DNA does not have immuno-stimulatory activity. CpG DNA induces a strong(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of a symbiotic bacterium Mesorhizobium loti strain MAFF303099 was determined. The genome of M. loti consisted of a single chromosome (7,036,071 bp) and two plasmids, designated as pMLa (351,911 bp) and pMLb (208, 315 bp). The chromosome comprises 6752 potential protein-coding genes, two sets of rRNA genes and(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recently, there has been great interest in adult neurogenesis. We investigated whether transient forebrain ischemia could influence the proliferation of neuronal progenitor in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the rat hippocampus and whether aging could influence the neurogenesis after ischemia. METHODS Male Wistar rats were subjected(More)
The genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been sequenced by an international collaboration, The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative. Here we report the complete sequence of chromosome 5. This chromosome is 26 megabases long; it is the second largest Arabidopsis chromosome and represents 21% of the sequenced regions of the genome. The sequence of(More)
The possible involvement of 5-HT(4) receptors in cognitive function was investigated with a view toward modulating the cholinergic neuronal system. For this purpose, behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical studies were performed in rats. The behavioral study, using a passive avoidance test, demonstrated that the 5-HT(4) receptor agonist SC 53116(More)
In hippocampal CA1 neurons of wild-type mice, delivery of a standard tetanus (100 pulses at 100 Hz) or a train of low-frequency stimuli (LFS; 1000 pulses at 1 Hz) to a naive input pathway induces, respectively, long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD) of responses, and delivery of LFS 60 min after tetanus results in reversal of LTP(More)
We analyzed the polymorphic (CAG)n and (GGC)n repeats of the androgen receptor gene in 113 unrelated X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) X chromosomes and 173 control X chromosomes in Japanese males. The control chromosomes had an average CAG repeat number of 21 +/- 3 with a range from 14-32 repeat units, and SBMA chromosomes had a range from(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana is an important model system for plant biologists. In 1996 an international collaboration (the Arabidopsis Genome Initiative) was formed to sequence the whole genome of Arabidopsis and in 1999 the sequence of the first two chromosomes was reported. The sequence of the last three chromosomes and an analysis of the whole genome are(More)
To investigate the astrocyte response to hypoxia/reoxygenation, as a model relevant to the pathogenesis of ischemic injury, cultured rat astrocytes were exposed to hypoxia. On restoration of astrocytes to normoxia, there was a dramatic increase in protein synthesis within 3 h, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of metabolically(More)
We investigated the possibility that neuronal cells given a mild ischemic treatment sufficient to perturb the cellular metabolism acquired tolerance to a subsequent, and what would be lethal, ischemic stress in vivo. Cerebral ischemia was produced in the gerbils by occlusion of both common carotids for 5 min, which consistently resulted in delayed neuronal(More)