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BACKGROUND Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by the symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. ADHD was once perceived as a condition of childhood only; however increasing evidence has highlighted the existence of ADHD in older adolescents and adults. Estimates for the(More)
BACKGROUND Symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to persist into adulthood in the majority of cases. AIMS To determine the prevalence of methylphenidate, dexamfetamine and atomoxetine prescribing and treatment discontinuation in adolescents and young adults. METHOD A descriptive cohort study using the UK General Practice(More)
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) affect 1 % of children, having significant impact on health and social outcomes. Psychotropic medication use by individuals with ASD in the USA increased over time, and polypharmacy occurred in >50 % of those prescribed. In the UK, no psychotropic drugs are approved in ASDs, and little is known about patterns of(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide an overview of drug use in children in three European countries. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study, 2000-5. SETTING Primary care research databases in the Netherlands (IPCI), United Kingdom (IMS-DA), and Italy (Pedianet). PARTICIPANTS 675 868 children aged up to 14 (Italy) or 18 (UK and Netherlands). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(More)
BACKGROUND ADHD guidelines in the UK suggest that children and adults who respond to pharmacological treatment should continue for as long as remains clinically effective, subject to regular review. To what extent patients persist with treatment from childhood and adolescence into adulthood is not clear. This study aims to describe, in UK primary care, the(More)
To compile an inventory of European healthcare databases with potential to study long-term effects of methylphenidate (MPH) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Potential databases were identified through expert opinion, the website of the European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance, and literature(More)
UNLABELLED Asthma drugs are amongst the most frequently used drugs in childhood, but international comparisons on type and indication of use are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe asthma drug use in children with and without asthma in the Netherlands (NL), Italy (IT), and the United Kingdom (UK). We conducted a retrospective analysis of(More)
BACKGROUND Compared to existing literature on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little published adult data are available, particularly outside of the United States. Using General Practitioner (GP) questionnaires from the United Kingdom, this study aimed to examine a number of issues related to ADHD in adults, across three cohorts(More)
In children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD), pharmacotherapy is considered when non-pharmacological interventions do not improve symptoms and functional impairment. Risperidone, a second-generation antipsychotic is increasingly prescribed off-label in this indication, but its efficacy and tolerability is poorly studied in CD, especially in young(More)
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