Mace G. Barron

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The photoenhanced toxicity of weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANS) was investigated in the eggs and larvae of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) with and without the chemical dispersant Corexit 9527. Oil alone was acutely toxic to larvae at aqueous concentrations below 50 microg/L total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (tPAH), and median lethal(More)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can cause a variety of effects in early life-stages of fish that have been chronically exposed as embryos, including mortality, deformities, and edemas. Mechanistic models of the chronic toxicity of complex mixtures of PAHs in fish have not been reported, with the exception of a previously untested model based on the(More)
The present study describes the acute toxicity of eight commercial oil dispersants, South Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC. The approach used consistent test methodologies within a single laboratory in assessing the relative acute toxicity of the eight dispersants, including Corexit 9500A, the predominant dispersant applied(More)
Chlorpyrifos is a broad-spectrum organophosphorothioate insecticide with a principal mechanism of toxicity by inactivation of acetylcholinesterase at nerve junctions. Unlike certain organochlorine pesticides, chlorpyrifos is relatively nonpersistent (Racke 1993), and its principal degradation products are less toxic than the parent chemical. Species(More)
The relative potency of polycyclic aromatic compounds as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists in fish was determined using data on CYP1A induction or AhR binding for 74 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocycles in teleost, avian, or mammalian systems from 18 published papers. Each PAH was assigned a fish potency factor relative to the(More)
The aquatic organisms toxicity testing protocols developed by the chemical response to oil spills: Ecological Research Forum (CROSERF) were evaluated for applicability to assessing chemical dispersant toxicity under subarctic conditions. CROSERF participants developed aquatic toxicity testing protocols with the foremost objective of standardizing test(More)
Photoenhanced toxicity is the increase in the toxicity of a chemical in the presence of ultraviolet light (UV) compared to a standard laboratory test conducted with fluorescent lighting (minimal UV). Oil products, weathered oil, and specific polycyclic aromatic compounds present in oil are 2 to greater than 1000 times more toxic in the presence of UV. The(More)
The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of a model organophosphorothioate, chlorpyrifos, was investigated in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Chlorpyrifos exhibited multicompartmental disposition after oral and intravascular administration, indicating slower distribution to peripheral storage tissues. The oral bioavailability of chlorpyrifos was 41%,(More)
This study investigated the synergistic toxicity of aqueous polyaromatic compounds (PAC) dissolved from crude oil and ultraviolet radiation (UV) in natural sunlight to the calanoid copepods Calanus marshallae and Metridia okhotensis. These copepods were first exposed to low doses (approximately 2 microg of total PAC/L) of the water-soluble fraction of(More)
Ecological risks to wildlife are typically assessed using toxicity data for relatively few species and with limited understanding of differences in species sensitivity to contaminants. Empirical interspecies correlation models were derived from LD50 values for 49 wildlife species and 951 chemicals. The standard wildlife test species Japanese quail (Coturnix(More)