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Inhibitory and facilitatory descending pathways, originating at higher central nervous system sites, modulate activity of dorsal horn nociceptive neurons, and thereby influence pain perception. Dysfunction of inhibitory pain pathways or a shift in the balance between pain facilitation and pain inhibition has been associated with the development of chronic(More)
BACKGROUND At low dose, the nonselective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine produces potent analgesia. In humans, psychedelic side effects limit its use. To assess whether other N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist have an improved therapeutic utility index, we compared antinociceptive, side effect, and locomotor activity of three(More)
BACKGROUND Neuropathic pain is a difficult to treat disorder arising from central or peripheral nervous system lesions. The etiology of neuropathic pain consists of several overlapping pathways converging into an exaggerated pain state with symptoms such as allodynia and hyperalgesia. One of these pathways involves activation of spinal cord microglia and(More)
Neuropathic pain (NP) is a debilitating condition associated with traumatic, metabolic, autoimmune and neurological etiologies. Although the triggers for NP are diverse, there are common underlying pathways, including activation of immune cells in the spinal cord and up-regulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Ketamine, a well-known NDMAR(More)
Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is a paradoxical increase in pain perception that may manifest during opioid treatment. For morphine, the metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) is commonly believed to underlie this phenomenon. Here, in three separate studies, we empirically assess the role of M3G in morphine-induced hyperalgesia. In the first study, CD-1(More)
Neuropathic pain following nerve injury is a chronic disease characterized by allodynia and hyperalgesia of either mechanical or thermal origin. The mechanism underlying this disease is poorly understood leading to pharmacologic and physiotherapeutic control that is often insufficient. In this chapter, we describe a method to induce nerve injury in rats to(More)
INTRODUCTION Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is the paradoxical increase in pain perception that may become manifest during opioid treatment for acute and chronic pain (1–4). OIH is characterized by increased sensitivity to painful stimuli (hy-peralgesia) and nonpainful stimuli (allo-dynia) and compromises adequate pain treatment (1–4). Morphine is the(More)
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