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Inhibitory and facilitatory descending pathways, originating at higher central nervous system sites, modulate activity of dorsal horn nociceptive neurons, and thereby influence pain perception. Dysfunction of inhibitory pain pathways or a shift in the balance between pain facilitation and pain inhibition has been associated with the development of chronic(More)
BACKGROUND Exogenous erythropoietin inhibits development of allodynia in experimental painful neuropathy because of its antiinflammatory and neuroprotective properties at spinal, supraspinal, and possibly peripheral sites. The authors assess the effect of a nonhematopoietic erythropoietin analog, ARA290, on tactile and cold allodynia in a model of(More)
To assess the analgesic efficacy of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist S(+)-ketamine on fibromyalgia pain, the authors performed a randomized double blind, active placebo-controlled trial. Twenty-four fibromyalgia patients were randomized to receive a 30-min intravenous infusion with S(+)-ketamine (total dose 0.5mg/kg, n=12) or the active placebo,(More)
BACKGROUND At low dose, the nonselective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine produces potent analgesia. In humans, psychedelic side effects limit its use. To assess whether other N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist have an improved therapeutic utility index, we compared antinociceptive, side effect, and locomotor activity of three(More)
ARA 290 (a peptide designed to activate the innate repair receptor that arrests injury and initiates cytoprotection, antiinflammation and healing) reduces allodynia in preclinical neuropathy models. We studied the safety and efficacy of ARA 290 to reduce symptoms of small fiber neuropathy (SFN) in patients with sarcoidosis. A total of 22 patients diagnosed(More)
BACKGROUND Neuropathic pain is a difficult to treat disorder arising from central or peripheral nervous system lesions. The etiology of neuropathic pain consists of several overlapping pathways converging into an exaggerated pain state with symptoms such as allodynia and hyperalgesia. One of these pathways involves activation of spinal cord microglia and(More)
Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is a paradoxical increase in pain perception that may manifest during opioid treatment. For morphine, the metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) is commonly believed to underlie this phenomenon. Here, in three separate studies, we empirically assess the role of M3G in morphine-induced hyperalgesia. In the first study, CD-1(More)
Neuropathic pain (NP) is a debilitating condition associated with traumatic, metabolic, autoimmune and neurological etiologies. Although the triggers for NP are diverse, there are common underlying pathways, including activation of immune cells in the spinal cord and up-regulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Ketamine, a well-known NDMAR(More)
Neuropathic pain following nerve injury is a chronic disease characterized by allodynia and hyperalgesia of either mechanical or thermal origin. The mechanism underlying this disease is poorly understood leading to pharmacologic and physiotherapeutic control that is often insufficient. In this chapter, we describe a method to induce nerve injury in rats to(More)
Small nerve fiber loss and damage (SNFLD) is a frequent complication of sarcoidosis that is associated with autonomic dysfunction and sensory abnormalities, including pain syndromes that severely degrade the quality of life. SNFLD is hypothesized to arise from the effects of immune dysregulation, an essential feature of sarcoidosis, on the peripheral and(More)
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