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Heat treatment of wood at relatively high temperatures (in the range of 150–280°C) is an effective method to improve biological durability of wood. This study was performed to investigate the effect of heat treatment process optimisation on the resistance against fungal attack, including basidiomycetes, molds and blue stain fungi. An industrially used(More)
The determination of biological durability of wood is an issue requiring sufficient reliability regarding end-use related prediction of performance. Five test institutes joined efforts to check standard test methods and to improve methodology and data interpretation for assessment of natural durability of timber species. A range of softwood and hardwood(More)
Dynamics of flooding and drying resulting in fragmentation of lotic habitats are a yearly phenomenon in subtropical floodplain rivers but their ecological significance is not known for invertebrate communities. We studied the response of zooplankton and macroinvertebrate communities in 48 dry-season river pools in the Save-Runde river system (Lowveld,(More)
A method of reading exposed radiochromic film is described which has significant advantages over conventional densitometry. The method employs a document scanner and associated software for imaging the film. The resulting images are easily analysed using standard software to yield high-resolution dose maps. A calibration was performed which relates scanner(More)
Dielectric measurements at 3 GHz were made for three softwoods, European pine, spruce and hemlock. The longitudinal, radial and tangential grain directions of the wood were considered as well as moisture contents ranging from 6% to 35%. The positive effect of the moisture content on the loss factor ε″ illustrates the selectivity of microwave drying(More)
Worldwide, river fragmentation is primarily responsible for the decline of populations of migrating fish. In particular, anadromous fish species, which necessarily migrate to fresh water to reproduce, are endangered since many are no longer able to reach their natural spawning sites. In addition, pollution of rivers effectively prevents upstream or(More)
Fish-based indices monitor changes in surface waters and are a valuable aid in communication by summarising complex information about the environment (Harrison and Whitfield, 2004). A zone-specific fish-based multimetric estuarine index of biotic integrity (Z-EBI) was developed based on a 13 year time series of fish surveys from the Zeeschelde estuary(More)
Due to European environmental regulations, solvent-borne wood coating systems have to be replaced by water-borne and high solid coatings. Thorough research is yet needed to replace the traditional solvent-borne systems by water-borne paints and stains for exterior wooden joinery. In this article the penetration of paint primers and wood stain base-coats(More)